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Do I need work experience to apply for an MBA?

Key takeaways:

  • If you want to apply for an MBA, you must be ready to take on the challenge of studying full-time.
  • An MBA is more than just a degree. It  is also a managerial training programme.
  • You might be able to get into an MBA programme without work experience. Still, you will have a much easier time if you have some work experience under your belt.
  • An MBA with work experience gives you more than just job skills; it teaches you how to manage your time and prioritise tasks.
  • If you don’t have work experience before pursuing your MBA, there are ways to prepare yourself before applying for an MBA programme, such as volunteering or taking on volunteer roles in your current field or industry.

If you are considering applying to business schools, you might wonder if your lack of work experience will hold you back. You are not alone. Many applicants worry that they are too young or don’t have the proper credentials, but there are plenty of ways to overcome this obstacle and get into the programme of your dreams.

The good news is that most schools don’t require a certain number of years in the workforce before applying, so you don’t have to wait until you’ve worked for many years before taking the plunge into business school. Some schools have more applicants who have never worked than those with experience.

While some people who pursue an MBA do so after working in their field for a while, others pursue their first master’s degree as a path to their dream job. It is important to know what makes for a strong application to give yourself the best chance of getting into the programme of your choice.

Why do MBA programmes require work experience?

The answer to this question is a bit complex, but it boils down to the value of work experience.

MBA programmes are designed to train students to be business leaders. To be prepared for the challenges that come with the role, learners must have an MBA with work experience in a real-world environment. This means they need to understand how differently people in a team interact and how they can contribute their unique skills and perspectives.

Additionally, work experience also indicates maturity and commitment. 

Typical work experience among incoming MBA students

Because of the emphasis on career preparation in MBA programmes, students need to have some work experience in the field before they begin their studies. This can be done through internships, volunteer work, or paid jobs relevant to your field of study.

The benefits are twofold: first, you will have more confidence while entering your MBA programme because you already have some experience under your belt; second, you will be most likely to succeed once you graduate.

Work experience among incoming MBA students is varied and rich. Most students have between 1-5 years of work experience before applying to a business school. 

The most common industry sectors of incoming MBA students are consulting, financial services, and technology. In addition, many students have worked in non-profit organisations or with start-up ventures. More than half of incoming students report having worked abroad in at least one of their previous positions, with China being the most popular destination.

MBAs’ most commonly held positions as working professionals are finance, consulting, and operations management. Sales roles are also prevalent among new students. 

How much work experience is ideal for an MBA?

If you are planning to apply to a business school, you might wonder how much work experience is ideal for pursuing an MBA.

Most programmes generally demand a full-time work experience of 2-5 years before applying for an MBA. If you are applying to an accelerated programme or one that requires a significant amount of self-study, less than two years may suffice. 

Many part-time programmes prefer applicants who have worked for a short time. In contrast, others look favourably for applicants with up to 7 years of full-time work experience before applying. Some schools also emphasise internships more than others.

Average MBA work experience for top programmes

When looking at the application requirements for an MBA programme, you will see that most schools require candidates to have at least 2 years of work experience before applying. 

It is because they want applicants ready to hit the ground running after graduation. If you’ve only been working for two years, chances are that your skills and knowledge aren’t as developed as they will be by the time you finish your degree programme.

That said, there are some exceptions to this rule. If your previous jobs were in highly specialised fields like business analytics, those might not count toward your total years of work experience because they are closer to what you will be studying in school than other positions. In addition, if you’ve already finished a bachelor’s degree programme, some of them may waive the requirement or allow you to apply with less than two years’ of employment under your belt (as long as all other requirements have been met).

Does an internship count as work experience for an MBA?

Yes, an internship counts for an MBA with work experience.

An internship is a paid or unpaid position where a student or recent graduate works in a company to gain the credibility of an MBA with working professionals’ experience. Internships are a great way to gain real-world insight into the field you are interested in pursuing and can help you land a job after graduation.

For those hoping to get into management consulting after their MBA studies, internships are beneficial because they provide a chance to learn how managers think and what leadership skills they possess. In addition, they offer valuable insights into the financial, legal, and ethical issues companies face today. An internship can also give you helpful information about what it is like to work within a specific industry sector or business model.

Best work experience for an MBA

A good certification of MBA with work experience is integral to getting into a quality company. If your application shows that you are passionate about the work you do and feel challenged by it, it will better reflect who you really are.

If you are applying for an MBA programme, you need to show that you can handle the pressure of being in the business world.

The best way to do this is by having a resume highlighting the different positions you’ve held at companies known for their high standards and demands. These types of jobs demand a lot from each employee.

Can I get an MBA without work experience?

If you are thinking about going back to school for an MBA, you may be wondering if you can pursue an MBA without having work experience. Here’s what you need to know about getting an MBA without work experience-

  • Most schools expect you to have at least one year of experience as a working professional before applying for their programme. If you don’t have that much experience, ask your school about their exceptions policy. Some schools do allow students close to the 2-year mark in terms of experience.
  • Some schools offer online options or part-time programmes. These options may be more flexible and allow students with no work experience to enrol in a degree programme. At the same time, they continue working in full-time or part-time jobs.
  • Talk to your school’s career services department about your situation, as they may be able to help connect you with alumni who can share their experiences and advice about how best to approach applying for an MBA programme without work experience at your school.

Why choose the MAHE MBA programme curated for working professionals?

The MBA programme by the Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) through Online Manipal is designed to be completed in 2 years, with 3 semesters per year. The curriculum is focused on providing students with the skills they require to excel in their workplace. The course is designed in such a way that students can graduate with a valuable degree even if they have a full-time job. 

Working professionals are often looking for ways to advance in their careers without taking time off work, which could cost them their job or send their careers into a tailspin. This programme allows them to improve their skills and earn an MBA while continuing their careers as usual.

Because this programme is designed for learners with full-time jobs, it offers online and on-campus options so students can choose what works best for them. Students will also be able to take advantage of specialised resources such as career counselling services and networking opportunities with other MBA students and alumni from around the world.

What are the qualities, experiences and skills that high-end business schools look for in applicants?

In the world of business school admissions, there are certain qualities, experiences, and skills that are expected of applicants. Here are some of the most important ones:

  • Leadership skills

You’ve got to be a leader if you want to get into an elite business school. That means having the ability to motivate people and inspire them to do their best.

  • The ability to work in a team

You will be working in small groups on projects throughout your course at an elite business school, so this is an essential skill for success there.

  • An understanding of how businesses work

This isn’t just about knowing how to balance the books—you will  need to understand how different departments interact with each other and what drives each one individually as well as collectively.

  • The ability to think critically and analytically

If you want to be successful at an elite business school, you should be able to solve problems creatively without getting stuck in old ways of thinking or making assumptions about what others’ motives might be instead of asking them directly first.

Final thoughts 

The Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) with Online Manipal is a pioneer in online MBA education and has the highest ranking among the top 10 Schools across India. It is recognized by UGC and AICTE. 

The institution offers a wide range of programmes that are designed to meet the needs of students who wish to pursue their career in management. The courses offered at MAHE are designed by experts with industry experience along with a strong focus on real-world applications, ensuring that you are equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in your career.

Business Management Certificate: Why do I need one?

Key takeaways:

  • The business management certificate is a great way to gain the skills you need to kickstart your management career.
  • It will help you understand what it takes to run a business and how your role fits into the bigger picture.
  • You will be able to define what success looks like for your organisation and how you can achieve it through strategic planning and effective communication.
  • You will have access to a network of professionals who have been there before you and can help guide your career path as you begin making decisions that will impact your future development as an employee or entrepreneur.

What is a business management certificate?

A business management certificate is a degree that gives you the skills and knowledge you need to manage a business.

A business management certificate online may suit you if you’re interested in business management. You will have the opportunity to learn what it takes to start and run a successful business, including budgeting, accounting, human resources management, etc. It can help prepare you for an accountant or financial analyst career. 

Still, it can also be helpful if you’re looking to advance your skills or make a career change to another field that requires similar knowledge of financial matters, such as marketing or sales.

Business management certificates are offered at many levels, including associate’s and bachelor’s degrees. They may also be provided online, so students can complete them from anywhere in the world with internet access.

What skills can I learn by getting a business management certificate?

A business management certificate online can help you learn how to manage a business and develop the skills needed to become an effective manager. It’s a strong choice for people who want to advance their careers by learning how to lead and manage teams and those looking for a career change.

While many other types of business courses are available, such as accounting and marketing certificates, these business management certificate programmes tend to focus on specific areas of expertise rather than general leadership skills. In this section, we will dive into the skills you can learn by getting a business management certificate.

  • Varied experiences, enabling industry integration

An MBA is a great way to build your business acumen, but it’s not for everyone. An online business management certificate allows you to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamentals of accounting and finance and the more advanced skills required to succeed in today’s business environment.

  • Understanding the interface of the business with technology and analytics

The world is changing! Gone are the days when businesses could succeed simply by being good at what they do. Today, companies need to be able to adapt quickly and effectively—and that means understanding how technology can help them do things better than ever before. An business management certificate online will give you this knowledge.

  • Skills aligned with professional requirements and priorities

Many people want to change careers or advance in their current field but don’t know where to start. A business management certificate online allows you to gain valuable information about what kind of career or job you want, and how best to get there!

  • Self and a renewed commitment to personal development 

It can help you build self-awareness and understand your strengths and weaknesses. It will also help you identify areas you need to develop further. This is important because it will allow you to work on yourself to achieve personal growth.

  • Enhanced problem-solving, managerial, communication and leadership skills

The certificate will give you access to specialised knowledge and skills about the chosen electives. This means that after completing the course, you’ll be able to boost your knowledge base and enhance your existing skill set.

  • Specialised knowledge and skills about the chosen electives

If there’s one thing that most people are looking for when choosing a course, it’s specialised knowledge! With a business management certificate, you’ll have access to lots of information about various topics related to business management, such as finance or marketing – all at once!

What job roles can I expect after PGCP in Management?

After receiving your PGCP in Management, what jobs can you get with a business management certificate? You can expect to find jobs many positions, such as –

Job roles Average salary 
Marketing ManagerINR 7.4 LPA
Product ManagerINR 16.3 LPA
Brand ManagerINR 12 LPA
Business ConsultantINR 11.5 LPA
Finance ManagerINR 13 LPA
HR ManagerINR 7 LPA

Source: AmbitionBox

  • Marketing Manager

Marketing managers are responsible for creating and implementing a company’s marketing strategy. They typically work with advertising agencies to create ads and other marketing materials; they also work with sales teams to help them sell the company’s products. 

  • Product Manager

Product managers are responsible for managing all aspects of a product’s development, including working with designers, engineers, and marketers to develop new products or improve existing ones. They also manage budgets for their team members and ensure deadlines are met on time. 

  • Brand Manager

A brand manager is responsible for overseeing the branding efforts of a company or product line. Brand managers often work closely with designers and marketers to ensure that each piece of branding conveys the right message about their brand. 

  • Business Consultant

Business consulting involves analysing and improving management systems, which is especially helpful if your company is trying to scale up or down or is facing a crisis. A business consultant works with businesses to help them grow and improve. They often work directly with clients or on their own, but they also may work for an agency that provides consulting services. 

  • Finance Manager

A Finance Manager oversees money matters for a company or organisation. They ensure that bills are paid on time and that there’s always enough cash flow available for day-to-day operations and long-term investments. 

  • HR Manager

A Human Resources Manager oversees all aspects of employee relations, including hiring employees, ensuring compliance with labour laws, negotiating contracts with unions and other organisations representing employees’ interests within the workplace (such as through collective bargaining agreements), and so on. 

What can I do with a business management certificate?

There are several options for people who have earned a business management certificate. Some of them include –

  • It can help you get a job

Business management certifications are an excellent way to boost your career and make you more marketable to employers. If you’re looking to advance in your current role or hoping to switch industries, these certifications can give you the tools you need to stand out from the crowd when applying for jobs. 

Many employers require certification as part of their hiring process, so having this on your resume will give you an edge over other candidates who don’t have it.

  • You’ll learn valuable skills

Business management courses teach students important topics like finance, marketing, leadership and operations management. With this knowledge under your belt, you’ll be able to make better decisions at work and improve your performance and those around you. This will help ensure your company stays competitive and profitable in today’s marketplace.

  • Gain a competitive edge

Nowadays, having a bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for most jobs. A business management certificate can help you stand out from the crowd by showing that you have taken additional steps toward developing your skills and gaining knowledge in business management.

  • Learn about new business practices

A business management certificate online can help you learn about new practices in the world of business. For example, if there is something specific that your company needs but doesn’t offer yet, such as an online store or social media marketing campaign, then learning how those things work might help you get more out of your company’s current offerings.

  • It can help you become a successful entrepreneur

While this might not be a primary reason you would choose to get a business management certificate online, it is still worth considering. If you want to start your own company or if you’re going to work as an entrepreneur, having a certificate in business management will give you some advantage over others who don’t have one. 

These best online business management certificate programmes can teach students –  

  • How to manage employees and finances
  • How to market their products or services
  • How to develop new products or services
  • How to write business plans 

Why choose an online business certificate?

If you’re thinking about starting an online business, there are a lot of things to consider. One of the most important is whether or not you should get an online business certificate. Here are some reasons why you might want to consider it. Advantages of pursuing an online PGCP in Management are:

  • It is flexible 

If you’re a working professional, you may be looking for an online certificate program to help you advance your career while allowing you to continue working full-time. With the online business certificate program, you can access courses and materials at your convenience, any time of day.

  • It is affordable 

The cost of the PGCP in management is much lower than that of many other best online business management certificate programmes because it is offered as an online course. You will also have access to various resources such as books, videos, podcasts and more that can help supplement your education without increasing your expenses.

  • You can work while you study

With so many options available today, finding ways to make studying for an online business certificate program fit into your schedule is manageable. You’ll have access to instructors who are experts in their fields and ready to guide you through this process step-by-step; they’ll even provide feedback on assignments so that each one meets their standards.

  • You gain valuable skills

Online business certificates provide the skills needed to succeed in various business roles. For example, you may want to learn how to work with people or develop your management skills. An online certificate will help you gain these valuable skills through classes and hands-on learning that is practical and relevant. You will also have access to a network of professionals who can guide you in applying these skills in your career.

  • It provides a competitive edge

A competitive edge is essential when applying for jobs or promotions. A certificate helps demonstrate that you have taken the time to invest in yourself by gaining valuable knowledge and skills through education and self-improvement efforts. This can be especially useful if you are applying for jobs within a large corporation where there may be many applicants with similar backgrounds and experiences.

MBA vs Business Certificate: Which one to consider?

MBA Business Management Certificate
An MBA is affordable comparative to a business management certificate.A business management certificate is in demand and hence is more cost effective than a business certificate.
An MBA can take more time (2 years) as compared to a business management certificate.A business management certificate can be completed in one year which is less as compared to MBA programmes.
An MBA could be a wise choice if you want to pursue further studies in a good field.A business management certificate programme is more likely worth the extra time and expense because it will give you more options for jobs and advancement opportunities.
If your goal is to crack new top colleges in India and pursue your career with necessary skills, then an MBA could be good.If your goal is simply to get into management roles, then a PGCP in management is the right choice.

Master your skills with TAPMI’s PGCP in Management

Enrolling in TAPMI’s PGCP in management is indeed the best decision you can make to upgrade your skills. The course is designed by TAPMI, a consultant unit of the reputed Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE). The courses are available on the world-class e-learning platform Online Manipal.

Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) is known for providing quality education and as a hub for research. It has been ranked among the top universities in India by many surveys and rankings. It houses many colleges, schools, and research institutes that provide affordable quality education.

The course provides an opportunity to polish your skills by offering practical knowledge to make you future-ready. It teaches you how to work with people from different backgrounds and cultures, making you more confident when dealing with others in the workplace. The course also teaches students how to implement their knowledge into real-life situations and apply what they learn from their textbooks to real-life scenarios.

The course also helps students develop leadership qualities and analytical thinking abilities, making them more employable than other candidates who do not possess these skills. The course also exposes students to different kinds of businesses which they can apply in their future careers. 

This helps students learn how to work in a corporate environment and develop communication skills through group projects.

Final word 

The business management certificate online is a great way to build your skills and advance your career. Whether you want to be a leader at the top of your company or an entrepreneur with your own business, this certificate can help get you there.

MBA Vs PGCP program – What to choose?

The dilemma of choosing MBA vs PGCP remains a top question in the minds of the aspirants who want to take their career to the next level through the postgraduate management course. The confusion is because the candidates are unaware of the difference between MBA and PGCP.

MBA stands for Masters in Business Administration, while PGCP indicates Postgraduate Certification Program. Most candidates tend to consider the PGCP inferior to MBA due to the term ‘certification’. However, it’s imperative to understand and dispel some common myths around MBA vs Business certification courses.

Scroll down to discover more about the similarities and differences between MBA and PGCP to find the one that suits your dream.

How is a certificate program different from a graduate degree?

Higher education in management or certification in the same niche can make the candidates possess the desired position in the corporate world. Amidst the need to add an extra qualification to one’s resume, the real question is to choose the one that is suited for you – between MBA and PGCP. 

  • Diploma or degree 

The major difference between the two courses is that MBA is a professional degree while PGCP is a certification course. Thus, MBA is not completely equal to PGCP. Nonetheless, the Association of Indian Universities (AIU) accreditation improves the worth of the program.

  • Comprehensive syllabus

In the MBA degree program, candidates will acquire more theoretical knowledge about management concepts and practices. One has to complete a comprehensive syllabus that covers various traditional concepts and modern subjects as part of their MBA study. On the other hand, the PGCP only deals with the core concepts that will expose students to practical training and insights into real business situations. In short, the certification course will be more practical and dynamic.

  • Curriculum focus

Both MBA and PGCP courses have similar core subjects. Nonetheless, some people claim that MBA has a more focused curriculum than certification courses. The real scenario is MBA is specialised in theoretical and technical aspects of management while PGCP is about indication orientation and essential skills needed for present market requirements.

  • Teaching methodology

A standard PGCP course offers more than classroom teaching. It gives utmost importance to case study pedagogy that will help you understand the application of implementing effective solutions to real-time problems. While the teaching methodology for MBA is generally more theoretical in nature.

You may also like to read the differences between MBA and PGDM.

Why choose an MBA?

Organizations’ and businesses’ needs are also changing in the ever-evolving world. Hence there is also increased demand for qualified managers, executives, functional leaders, and specialist executives. Below are some of the benefits of choosing an MBA.

  • Better career opportunities

MBA graduates can access a more diverse and wide range of job opportunities in several fields and industries, including HR management, statistics, technology, finance, and other key areas. 

  • Build a network of expert peers and leader

MBA candidates will get more exposure to connect with their network of peers through various events. They can also meet or connect with experienced individuals and leaders of leading multinational companies, facilitating the chance to build a successful network.

  • Acquire transferable skills

Pursuing an MBA will cultivate critical skills, including collaboration, communication, adaptation, creativity, and emotional intelligence, to refine your ability. The course will hone your interpersonal and technical knowledge, making you stay ahead.

  • Gain personal credibility

Earning an MBA indicates a deeper understanding of the business world. The program exhibits the impression of real-world challenges, enabling you to manage risks by making the best decisions.

  • Obtain an international perspective

In the globalized business environment, acquiring an MBA degree is invaluable. It will help you gain confidence to face the world market’s complex nature, familiarizing you with your peers’ perspectives, expertise, and experience.

Why choose a PGCP program?

Management is a rewarding career path, and pursuing a PGCP program will be a strong foundation to boost your career in the desired field. Here are some reasons to pursue a PGCP course,

  • Convenient and flexible

The course duration and timings per week of a PGCP course are flexible compared to full-time MBA courses. It also allows you to instantly access the resources per your preferred schedule and attend the course at your convenience. 

  • Earning while learning

These certification courses are especially for those who want to learn and earn simultaneously. In most cases, learning as a working professional will help you to advance in your career, increase your abilities and move you forward to the next level.

  • Application-based experiential learning

PGCP course is designed in a way to give the students experiential learning opportunities through a strong application-based approach. Such diverse integrated pedagogy will help them to gain the opportunity to be a part of the faster-growing industries with countless career opportunities.

  • Diverse career scope

The program enables industry integration and cross-fertilisation of business deals, allowing the students to perform diligently in multiple domains, including international marketing, business finance, laws, policy framework, sales, operations, project management, and consulting. 

  • Entrepreneurial skill development

As a course that is widely recognized across every industry, it will help the students to acquire IT-related skills in managing data in the face of complex workplace realities. Moreover, the skills obtained can be used to explore career options across the world.

Also read the PGCP vs MSc in Business Analytics.

Who should consider doing an MBA?

Several factors have to be taken into consideration if you are planning to pursue your higher education and an MBA. MBA course is a regular postgraduate program that trains candidates to establish their role in the field of management. However, the common question that comes to mind is will it be a good option for you and your career? The course is highly valued by students in both the Indian and international corporate world.

  • It will help the students who want to communicate and interact with expert leaders in the field. It will help them to attain success through a robust professional network.
  • The course will help the student to leverage their knowledge and skills creatively when they are in the middle of starting their business venture.
  • It is suitable for aspirants who want to climb the corporate ladder with higher remuneration, sharpening their skill sets and transforming their career path.

Who should consider doing a PGCP program? 

Postgraduate Certification Program or PGCP is a professional course that teaches candidates about the practical aspects of business through state-of-the-art learning techniques like case studies and experiential learning. Many renowned institutes offer PGCP courses for those who are interested in pursuing a career in management.

  • The course is apt for candidates from all disciplines and is designed to help them define their careers.
  • As an interdisciplinary course, it combines various streams – management, accounting, and economics to meet the needs of the market.
  • It helps the students who want to alight their skills with present industry demands.

Here are the PGCP Business Analytics course eligibility.

Career scope: MBA vs PGCP 

From the higher education perspective, having an MBA degree might put you ahead in the job market in the stage of application evaluation. However, not all career aspects get a certification course. Since both courses belong to the managerial stream, candidates will get more lucrative job opportunities in the modern era.

All said, the fact is most corporate sectors treat both MBA and PGCP courses equally. In a nutshell, the skill set and qualitative value of the professional experience play a critical role in the long-term career run.

Let us explore the career scope and salary structure of both MBA and PGCP below.

MBA helps you to lay a solid foundation for a new career, preparing yourself for better and higher-paying career opportunities.

RoleDescriptionSalary range (LPA)
HR ManagerTo ensure the hiring and onboarding process goes smoothly for new employees and make sure to take care of the needs of existing ones.INR 7-8 
Business AnalystTo collect information from the past about the organization results and compare them with the future goals.INR 6-7
Marketing ManagerTo handle the marketing of a business’s products or servicesINR 5-8
Investment BankerTo arrange, manage and execute all kinds of investment projects for the clientsINR 8-10

PGCP will help to gain a range of knowledge in various areas from marketing to customer service, allowing to go further in the career landscape in a shorter period.

RoleDescriptionSalary range (LPA)
Project ManagerTo oversee and handle every project within an IT company.INR 12-15
Tax SpecialistTo ensure all sales, profit and taxes of property are well administeredINR 5-7
ConsultantTo plan effective strategies to become more competitive in the corporate worldINR 9-12

Course duration: MBA vs PGCP

Understanding the course duration and curriculum will help you to plan, structure, set targets, and discover opportunities to align your goals for the current and prospects. For instance, if you are a working professional, you can opt for PGCP for flexible learning opportunities, while MBA is open for those who want to gain value through their higher education. Let us get right into the duration of both courses. 

MBA24 months (15 to 20 hours per week)
PGCP6 months to 1 year

Course eligibility criteria: MBA vs PGCP

There is little to no difference in how the Indian job market treats individuals with either PGCP or MBA. Most of the time, the reputation of the course solely depends on the name and brand of the institution. The course eligibility of MBA and PGCP has subtle differences.

Here for an MBA degree and PGCP course, you must meet the following requirements –

CourseAcademic QualificationProfessional Experience
MBA (Indian Students)Graduates (10+2+3) in any discipline from recognized universities/ institutions, or an equivalent qualification as recognized by the Association of Indian Universities (AIU) with a minimum of 50% of marks or equivalent grade.One year of work experience in reputed organizations / work experience is desirable (depends of institutions)
MBA (International Students)Graduates (10+2+3) in any discipline from recognized universities/ institutions, or an equivalent qualification as recognized by the Association of Indian Universities (AIU) with a minimum of 50% of marks or equivalent grade. Candidates must have completed a graduation degree certificate of equivalence from the Association of Indian Universities required for students with foreign education to apply to any university in India.One year of work experience in reputed organizations / work experience is desirable (depends of institutions)
PGCP programsGraduates from recognized universities with minimum of 50% marksMinimum 1 year of industry experience from reputed companies is desirable (depends on institutions)

Course fees: MBA vs PGCP

The fee for MBA is higher when compared with PGCP. The difference might be due to the financial aid and tuition fee between the programs. However, this is not an ironclad rule, since some institutions offer MBAs with low-cost factors, especially in government-approved universities. Here we have compiled the cost factor for both courses.

MBAINR 2,60,000 (INR 65,000 each semester)
PGCPINR 80,000 – INR 1,50,000 (varies for program to program)

You may be interested to find out the differences between MBA in SCM and PGCP in Supply Chain Management.

In a nutshell  

Their capabilities and professional endeavors define an individual’s career path. The key takeaway for the ultimate guide is to visualize the career path, be it MBA or PGCP. In short, if you are from a different field and looking for a career change, then you can go for PGCP programs. 

On the other hand, if you wish to explore the in-depth details of how a business and an organization work or to want to enter the research field, then an MBA should be your go-to option.

And while you are contemplating choosing the one, be sure to enroll in the management courses (MBA and PGCP) provided by the Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) through Online Manipal. The course will help you to take your career forward by equipping you with essential industry skills. Focus on what you want, your career choice, and what is in demand in the industry and job market will help you to align your professional goals, bringing out the best in you at every step of your career.

Key takeaways:

  • Aspirants who are interested in pursuing management courses have countless options. Hence learning the difference between MBA and PGCP is critical before making an informed decision.
  • MBA is a degree course that can be offered by universities or colleges affiliated with universities, while autonomous institutions offer PCGP courses.
  • Even though both management courses have some subtle differences, the career growth is almost similar, mostly based on the individual’s performance. No matter the course, to have a good start, one must go to the most reputed institute to pursue their dream.

What makes TAPMI PGCP in Management different?

Key takeaways:

  • The TAPMI PGCP in Management is a unique programme that combines a solid foundation in business management with an extensive understanding of the latest management practices, strategies and concepts.
  • It is designed to improve students’ knowledge, skills and abilities to effectively manage organisations. It is an intensive course of study that will allow students to acquire practical knowledge in all areas of business management as well as theoretical knowledge about how organisations function.
  • It provides students with a strong foundation for their future careers as managers or entrepreneurs by equipping them with knowledge of contemporary managerial practices and strategies.

PGCP in Management is a unique Postgraduate Certificate Programme designed by TAPMI. It helps you understand the current business environment and develop your leadership skills. It enables you to interact with global leaders, learn from their experiences, and apply them to your own career.

TAPMI is ranked 32 by NIRF in terms of best management colleges in India. Its post graduate program in management offers specialisations such as general management, marketing, human resources and banking financial services (BKFS). It has an excellent track record of placement and is one of the most sought-after programs by top companies in India.

The curriculum is designed by experienced faculty members who are industry professionals. It helps you develop strong communication skills that will help you in any competitive environment. The course will also give you practical knowledge about various industries and help you understand how they work so that when faced with challenges, you can handle them effectively.

Additionally, the program focuses on developing soft skills like teamwork, leadership, communication and problem-solving ability, which are essential for any professional today. You will have access to various learning resources, including books and journals, and online resources such as videos, webinars and podcasts, which will help enhance your knowledge base so that you can understand how things work in the real world. 

TAPMI is a brand itself

The TAPMI PGCP in management program which is available on Online Manipal, is one of India’s most sought-after management courses. 

If you are interested in pursuing management studies at TAPMI, here are the top things that make this program different from other schools:

  • Total (100%) placements

TAPMI PGCP in Management has a proven track record of providing students with complete placements. TAPMI has an unbeaten record of the students who have graduated and have received job offers from companies like Accenture, Deloitte, Wipro and many more.  

The school’s placement cell works hard to ensure that all students are fully prepared for their interviews and ready to take on the roles offered by various companies.

Diversified environment

The certificate course in business management has a diverse student population because of its international exposure. The programme is designed to take students worldwide, where they can learn from different cultures, see how businesses are run in other countries, and meet people from all over the world. This experience is invaluable for aspiring managers who want to work with people from different backgrounds and cultures.

  • Brandscan

The BrandScan programme is a unique initiative that helps students learn about the importance of brands and how to develop them. It also allows them to work with some of the best brands and companies in India.

BrandScan was started by TAPMI PGCP to help students understand and identify the different aspects of a brand. By providing students with hands-on experience and exposure to real-life scenarios, BrandScan aims to help them build their own brand identity and develop a healthy awareness of how brands operate.

  • Leadership assessment and development centre

Leadership is not a function; it is a mindset. It is not something that can be taught as a subject in an MBA programme; it needs to be internalised by the individual before they can become a leader. The Leadership Assessment & Development Centre aims to help you achieve this.

There are two critical elements to leadership- knowledge and skills. Knowledge refers to what you know about yourself and your surroundings, while skills refer to how well you can express that knowledge through action. 

The first step towards becoming a leader is to develop self-awareness- understanding where you stand regarding learning and skill development. This can be done through the Leadership Assessment & Development Centre (LADC).

  • Rankings 
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The TAPMI is a centre of excellence that has been providing outstanding education and professional services for over 30 years.

It is one of the seven institutes in India and 5% of the top business schools worldwide, accredited by Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and the Association of MBAs (AMBA). 

Executive programme for experiential learning

The TAPMI PGCP in Management is a unique programme that offers an opportunity to get a hands-on experience through internships and projects. This course is ideal for those who wish to pursue a career in management or want to deepen their knowledge of the subject.

What do you get from this programme?
Build management expertiseGet hands-on experienceJoin a large alumni communityLaunch a successful career

  • Build management expertise

The TAPMI PGCP in Management programme is focused on developing your management skills. You will learn to manage people, processes, and information systems to achieve organisational goals.

If you are interested in pursuing a career as a business management professional, this programme is for you. The coursework will help you build your management expertise by introducing subjects such as organisational behaviour, human resource management, marketing management and strategy. 

You will also get an opportunity to learn about various strategic business practices such as mergers and acquisitions, business ethics, corporate restructuring and international business.

  • Get hands-on experience

The programme emphasises experiential learning through real-life projects and internships, allowing you to apply your theoretical knowledge in the industry. Each student is assigned a task where they can work with industry experts to solve problems related to the business world. This helps them gain hands-on experience, which will be helpful when they start their careers after graduation.

  • Join a large alumni community

TAPMI management certification programme is one of India’s most popular management courses. It has a vast alumni community, and there are several opportunities to meet fellow students and alumni after graduation. The programme also has a solid social media presence, so you can stay connected with your classmates on LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter. 

Many students participate in networking events organised by the college during their time at TAPMI, which helps them make connections that last beyond graduation.

  • Launch a successful career

Students will be able to launch successful careers after graduating from this programme because they would have gained valuable knowledge about business practices and management strategies through classroom instruction and hands-on experience during internship opportunities at organisations in their field of study.

Who should apply for this course?

If you want the education and training required to succeed in today’s business world, TAPMI PGCP course is the perfect pick for you. This programme is appropriate for professionals looking to – 

  • Integrate job roles and classroom learning in real time

The TAPMI PGCP in Management course is industry-oriented, integrating job role requirements with classroom learning. This way, you get theoretical knowledge and practical insights on how to apply your learnings to real-world situations.

  • Get customised inputs on personal growth and career development

The TAPMI PGCP in Management course allows you to get customised personal growth and career development inputs. This is because the faculty members of this course are highly qualified and have a wealth of experience in their respective fields. They will guide you in developing relevant skills for your industry and help you prepare for future challenges.

  • Specialise in Capital Markets, Marketing, Business Analytics & AI

TAPMI’s PGCP in Management course provides specialisations in Capital Markets, Marketing Business Analytics & AI. These specialisations are designed to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in today’s business environments.

The core courses provided by this programme are – 

  • Business management– A comprehensive understanding of the core concepts in business management, including a focus on strategy formulation and operationalisation.
  • Financial accounting– An in-depth knowledge of financial statements, balance sheet and income statements, and the main elements of financial accounting.
  • Financial management– This course covers capital budgeting, cash flow forecasting, working capital management and capital structure decisions.
  • Marketing management– An understanding of marketing management principles, including market research, product positioning and pricing strategies, will be provided through this module.
  • Operations management – This course focuses on operations planning and control processes across manufacturing and services industries.

Eligibility for TAPMI PGCP in Management 

TAPMI’s PGCP in Management is open to candidates with a bachelor’s degree in any stream. The eligibility criteria for this course include the following:

  • The minimum eligibility requirement for this course is a Bachelor’s Degree with at least 50% marks or equivalent in any discipline recognised by UGC/AIU.
  • A minimum of 1 year’s industry experience from prestigious companies is a must.

Is there a demand for TAPMI PGCP courses?

The demand for TAPMI PGCP management courses is high as the number of students who have enrolled in this course has increased over the years. 

The program aims at enhancing managerial skills of students and equipping them with practical knowledge and skills required to manage projects efficiently. It also helps them develop soft skills such as communication, decision making, critical thinking and leadership abilities. This course aims at developing a holistic approach towards project management which includes planning, organising, controlling and executing tasks associated with any project.


The online PGCP in Management course by TAPMI is an excellent option for anyone looking to pursue a high standard certification course. Available at Online Manipal, the programme is designed for working professionals and prepares them for challenges of today’s business world, as it focuses on working in teams and developing leadership skills.

The certification course in management takes a strategic approach to management education by covering all areas of business management and provides students with the opportunity to choose specialisations they are most passionate about. This curriculum allows students to tailor their degree to fit their career goals, making it an ideal choice for those who want to be involved in both management and entrepreneurship.

With this course, you will get a valuable exposure to expertise, including high standards of quality and excellence without compromising on convenience or cost. The program is designed for busy professionals who have to balance work, family, and school. We offer various flexible payment options that make it easy for you to pay for your classes monthly or all at once if that suits your budget.

PGCP in Management course details

Key takeaways:

  • A postgraduate certificate programme in management is a course of higher studies in management, that serves aspirants to acquire a shiny edge and emerge as the best candidate for reputable management jobs.
  • PGCP in Management broadens the scope of career options for you. It will even allow your exploitative spirits to flourish in this field’s newer areas. 
  • The programme is for professionals who want to integrate job experience and classroom learning in real-time, gaining in depth insights to promote personal growth and career development.

The business vertical across the globe is constantly evolving and is more dynamic now than ever. To remain prepared and stay ahead, post-graduate certification management course is a great pick. It will educate and enable them to manage their businesses, contributing to the economy of the nation in various ways. 

The PGCP in management provided by TAPMI through Online Manipal offers different sought-after skills, allowing students to obtain effective strategies, frameworks, and knowledge.

An individual’s career development requires him/her to go beyond the core subject area, obtain a prominent presence in the venture, comprehend business tasks and gain a multidisciplinary way of dealing with management. PGCP in management is an exceptional module designed to broaden your viewpoint in business, master key skills and enhance your authoritative abilities. 

In short, after completing the management course, you will be able to recognize, define and tackle complex issues in the real-world environment, aiming to drive advancement and hierarchical change. 

Scroll down to explore the comprehensive PGCP management course details and its role in amplifying your learning experience and career prospects. 

What is PGCP in management?

The Postgraduate Certificate Programme in Management is a programme designed for working professionals who wish to boost their managerial career prospects. The primary objective of this master’s level course is to deliver managerial skills accompanied by efficient career options. This course is meant to train professional candidates and fresh graduates for various IT firms, financial positions, consultancy firms, and MNCs. 

A PGCP in management also provides flexible learning alternatives from excellent e-learning platforms like Online Manipal to study while you work. There are countless opportunities for aspiring individuals to acquire both theoretical knowledge and hands-on experience during the course of this programme.

Why consider a business certification programme?

Gain Competitive EdgeBoost Productivity and EfficiencyEnhance your Earning Potential Establish credibilityGrow your skills and knowledge

A professional certification sets one apart, making them a valuable asset to an organisation. A business certification program validates an individual’s high level of expertise and adds value to their resume, helping them to move to the next level in their career. It is a trusted tool that aids in your career growth to a great extent.

In short, a certification in management speaks about your professionalism, serves as proof of your qualification, and boosts the credential of your professional image. Here are some aspects of how a business certification program helps you mark your potential in the competitive industry.

  • Greater competitive edge

When you have business training that other candidates don’t, it will differentiate you from them in the field. It also shows your impeccable commitment to excel in your profession, eventually providing you a competitive advantage in today’s market. It is because the certification prepares you to deal with real-world challenges, aiding in improving the productivity of your profession.

  • Improved efficiency

A business certification program will offer extra training and complete knowledge, ensuring that aspirants become employment-ready and need less training than other candidates. The certification will imbibe you with up-to-date tools and skills, training you to manage all aspects of work efficiently. Potential employers appreciate independent professionals since it saves their valuable resources. 

  • Boosting earning potential

This might be the most important benefit of considering a business certification programme, enabling you to earn more with better raises and attractive bonuses. Very simply put, the time and effort you have invested in the certification program will get you increased income. 

  • Commitment and credibility

Considering the increasing number of companies, non-profitable organisations, and government agencies, gaining a recognised business certification is inevitable to prove your worth. It helps you to display your commitment to your role, professionalism, industry standards, and learning. 

Overall, it will help you to enhance your credibility and prestige within and wide around your network, whether you are looking for new business opportunities or bidding on projects for new clients.

  • Grow your skills

A business certification program will help you obtain new and updated industry-relevant skills and techniques, helping you in honing your abilities. This will increase your competency and confidence while you are establishing the groundwork to incorporate a more effective professional environment. 

Career prospects after pursuing a PGCP course 

A consistent thirst for knowledge is key to growth and achieving success in the ever-evolving business world. Completing a postgraduate certification in management will widen your scope to impressive and desirable management jobs. 

Through this course, individuals will be able to carve innovations in the business world with a touch of high quality and creativity. Simply put, the course will act as a complete realistic server for individuals to aim for one of the top titles in management. Here are a few areas where your hard-earned expertise is in demand. 

  • Private sector jobs

Various aspects of organisational units seek management students. Private companies generally look at your institution before hiring you. Otherwise, you can always go for entry-level jobs in marketing, finance, human resources, research, information technology, etc.  

  • Public and manufacturing sectors 

Although limited, a range of specialisations also exists in the public sector. In fact, applying for roles in manufacturing firms and industries will provide you with the strong foundation and exposure you need to grow well in any given field. It will give you real-time application of management concepts.

  • Research organisations 

Research organisations recruit postgraduates for the job profiles of success analysts and analytical experts because of their mastery in numbers. As the field moves forward, enrolling in PGCP in management will keep you up to date.

  • Business consulting 

Students trying out experimental areas through PGCP in management courses can benefit and find the relevant experience they are looking for in business advisory or consulting. As a financial advisor in financial institutions, a similar vacancy would be available in a tech firm and IT advisor. 

  • Entrepreneurship

A postgraduate certificate programme in management will help you acquire the skills you need to enter the world of entrepreneurship. 

  • Marketing Management

Marketing management programs are among the in-demand jobs today. It covers all aspects of marketing, such as product marketing, brand promotion, creating customer awareness, etc. The course helps you acquire the must-have skills – networking and communication skills.

  • Healthcare and Hospital Administration

The requirement for hospital management has risen in India over the past few years along with the increasing demand for healthcare facilities and policies. Healthcare & hospital administration provide non-medical backup services of general management, coordination, and other post-operative care that are essential for good reputation of hospitals and healthcare institutions. 

What are the benefits of PGCP in Management?

Going for a postgraduate certification program in management will help you in countless ways, from acquiring transferable skills to analysing a project. Furthermore, it will train you to address global business needs and incorporate effective strategies to solve them.

Enrolling in a PGCP course at the best online platform will offer you more than an enriching learning experience, help you glorify your resume, and advance your skills. Several factors can positively influence a person’s career if they are pursuing a PGCP in management. Check out some of the potential advantages of choosing certification course in management.

  • Exposure to external environments

A PGCP in management allows you to learn effective ways to tackle complex problems in a global business environment. You will learn how essential perceptions, opinions, and values of entrepreneurs affect the economic structure and the ways to deal with them. Such a problem-solving approach will help you gain valuable hands-on practical experience.

  • Increased salaries

The postgraduate certification course in management helps aspiring candidates to acquire a vast amount of knowledge and industry experience through its extensive curriculum. The course teaches students everything from basic concepts to complex problems, preparing them to take on the desired or top-level managerial/ executive position in the management sector with a higher pay scale.

  • Deeper understanding of the role

The primary goal of a management professional is to implement effective solutions and coordinate the action of the team to accomplish the goals and visions of the organisation. PGCP will help you understand the description of the role, daily tasks, fundamental responsibility, and more ins and outs to become a better and successful profession.

  • Better decision-making skills

Managerial professionals must be able to make a decision promptly and precisely. Preparing yourself with a post graduate certification course in management will help you recognize the importance and strategies of the decision-making process, inspiring a positive mindset. A good decision should be made through social, political, and emotional factors.

Eligibility criteria for PGCP in management

During the course, the candidate will have the opportunity to develop a better understanding in the role of the entrepreneur, ways to solve business issues and develop a strategy to succeed in the competitive marketplace. The course equips them with the knowledge required to meet the needs of management in the digital era and make the best out of it. Nonetheless, as a renowned certification course, PGCP in management wants the candidates to meet certain requirements. The eligibility criteria for the programs are mentioned below

Educational QualificationGraduates of any degree from recognised universities with minimum 50% marks
Professional ExperienceAt least one year of relevant industry experience from reputed organisations.


Pursuing a PGCP in management adds a great value in your resume. In the digital era, one needs to stand out from the crowd with great entrepreneurial abilities to become a potential creative leader in the field of management. 

The course duration itself presents you with loads of stellar opportunities to gain experience while you are learning the coursework. This professional certification by TAPMI will give you a headstart in the recruitment phase among your competitors. Also, the benefits of it are endless as job responsibilities, and profile will be one that fits your high qualifications. 

Online Manipal, through TAPMI, offers you a postgraduate certificate programme in management to help you gain success in the long term. The course is designed to deliver multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral management education, allowing you to emerge as a competent individual in the management arena. In a nutshell, the program will encourage you to explore the current dynamic business environment and encash the available opportunities to grow and flourish.

Globalising Rupee in global trade – Is RBI thinking in the right direction?

Have you ever wondered why countries trade? Countries trade due to the differences in technology, resources endowment, demand, government policies and existence of economies of scale.  

Let us understand what happens when Indian Rupee depreciates. When we say that Indian Rupee value has fallen against US Dollar, it means that Indian products has become cheaper in the international market. When Indian products become cheaper, exports increase whereas India has to shed out more Rupee against Dollar, thus making imports dearer. 

Common terms used in international trade:
Terms of trade – the ratio of country’s export and import price
Exchange rate – price of a country’s currency in terms of another currency. Eg: USD 1 = INR 80
Depreciation of currency – fall in the value of currency in terms of other currency
Appreciation of currency – is when the value of currency appreciates in terms of other currency

Dominance of Dollar in global trade 

After World War II, global trade was dominated by dollar as the US turned the world’s biggest economy. In 1944, Dollar was stable as compared to any other currencies and was pegged to gold. In 1970, Dollar was delinked from gold and then came the floating exchange rate, which means exchange was now determined by the market forces.  

Difference between the international trade with Dollar and trade in Rupee 

When Russia invaded Ukraine, America imposed sanctions which removed them from SWIFT network leading to many challenges in trading for India and other countries. Now the question is what the SWIFT network is and how it works. 

Let us say Company A of India has to import from Sri Lankan company B. There are six entities involved in this method, Indian trader Indian Bank, American Bank I, American Bank II, Sri Lankan Bank, and the Sri Lankan trader. 

Now the Indian Bank will have an account in American Bank I in Dollars in the same way the Sri Lankan will have an account in America Bank II in Dollar. Let us suppose Company A has to import goods worth of INR 1 crore from Sri Lanka, they give Indian Bank INR 1 crores and will ask to give INR 1 crore worth Dollar to American Bank II to pay to Sr Lankan trader. This INR 1 crore worth Dollar to in American Bank I will be converted according to the current exchange rate, say $1 = ₹80, which means $125,000 and transferred to American Bank II. Now the American Bank II will deposit the equivalent of $125,000 worth of Sri Lankan Rupee in Sr Lankan Bank, then Sri Lankan Bank will pay the Sri Lankan trader. This SWIFT system requires a lot of calculation and complex transaction management. The system is controlled by US and Europe; they can impose sanction on any country as they did on Russia who can no longer trade through SWIFT.  

Internationalising Rupee 

To reduce the dependency on foreign currency, India plans to soon select its trade in Indian currency. International trade settlement in this case requires involvement of trading partner country and its bank. Indian banks will be allowed to open special Rupee vostro account of bank with trading countries. All payments will be channelled through vostro account, as was in the case of crude oil imports from Iran. If such deals are signed with more countries, it will be a big step in internationalising the Rupee.  

SBI Group Chief Economist Soumya Kanti Ghosh said in a research note that the RBI should make a “conscious effort” to internationalise the Rupee and the payment disruptions caused by the Russia-Ukraine war offers a good opportunity to insist on export settlement in Rupee, beginning with some of the smaller export partners. 

Let us understand how it works with a simple example – 

  • Countries must be interested to trade in Indian Rupee 
  • Both countries should open vostro accounts in their respective countries. Eg: if India is trading in Rupee with Russia, Russia should have a vostro account in India and vice versa 
  • Both should have reserves in local currency 

Suppose India wants to export to Russia. Russia will pay in their currency – Rouble. This payment will not be made to the exporter directly but will be deposited in their Indian bank account. The bank will then calculate it in Indian Rupee and pay traders in Rupee (this conversion between Rupee and Rouble will happen according to the exchange rate determined by market forces).  

Application of trade without SWIFT network in real-world scenario 

Suppose an Indian trader wants to import goods from a trader in Russia without SWIFT network in Rupee or dollar. Russia will have bank account in an Indian Bank with money in Indian Rupee, which is nothing but a vostro account (an account maintained in Rupees by a local bank for a foreign bank). Now, the Indian trader when importing goods from Russia will pay to Russian account in Indian bank (vostro account) in Rupee, the Russian Bank will pay to the Russian trader in Rouble according to the market exchange rate. The same happens when the Indian trader is exporting goods to the Russian trader. In such cases, all transactions happen through the vostro account. 


How will internationalisation of Rupee benefit India? 

  • This will increase the demand for Rupee as foreign traders will require Indian Rupee 
  • It will help in preserving foreign reserves which in turn reduce our trade deficit 
  • Trade easiness with countries like Russia, Sri Lanka and Iran means saving for both the sides, if the trade happens with Dollar 
  • It will enhance our integration into the global economy 
  • Promote development of financial markets 
  • Increase international trade with South Asian countries 

Why RBI decided to take such a step? 

All said, it is not an easy step, as Dollar is widely recognised and is the strongest currency of choice for international trade. Another Asian giant- China- has been trying for several years but could still contribute to only 3% of global trade transaction. This decision has been taken to promote global trade, lower transaction cost and motivate exports with partner countries. This is not just a fair deal from the economic angle, but also an important move from the geo-political angle.  





How do I prepare for a Data Science interview

Key takeaways:

  • Today, the generation and application of information acquired through data is a crucial economic activity. Data science facilitates the power to extract information from a large volume of databases, making it simple to process the data to provide fruitful results. 
  • The role of the Data Scientist has been proven to obtain real-time information in various public service fields, including health-related research, fraud detection, financial market analysis, environmental protection, energy exploration and more.   
  • Data science interview questions can be intimidating due to the technical tests involved. Hence to ace the interview, learning how to prepare is important, increasing your chance of walking away with your job offer.

Data Science is one of the top career options for aspiring youngsters from technology backgrounds, thanks to the world going through an era of data explosion. According to a recent survey, the number of businesses hiring data scientists has increased from 30% to 60% within one year. Moreover, given the pace that we are moving towards digitalisation, the professional sure is here to stay.

While the demand for a data scientist is growing, data science interviews can be terrifying since it’s hard to navigate the competitive landscape. If you are in the same scenario, you have landed in the right place. Scroll on to discover more about the framework that will help you streamline your data science interview questions preparation through every step of your career journey. 

Steps in a data science hiring 

Are you feeling overwhelmed about how to begin your preparation journey for a data scientist interview? You are not alone! Organisations constantly seek ways to improve their hiring process to source and recruit talented data scientists. Let’s dive in to learn about the step-by-step process of data science hiring.

  • Getting applications

When the company lists its job vacancy, it receives hundreds and thousands of applications. In such cases, recruiters will analyse the CV and portfolio of the candidates to sort out the passionate enthusiasts with strong academics and proper experience.

  • Pre-screening 

Once the organisation decides the requirements of the job profile, it will plan a proper pre-screening test with basic questions about motivation and qualification. This simple assessment will reduce the application pool and enable them to understand whether the candidate can face highly demanding technical challenges.

  • Technical assessment

The candidates who have cleared the pre-screening will be invited to participate in the technical test, which will have the basic operations regarding the role. In this process, transparency is inevitable since it will readily screen out candidates with minimum technical skills.

  • HR interview

In most situations, the candidate will start their interview process by talking to the Human Resource Recruiter on the phone. Even though there will be basic questions, you should be prepared to outsmart yourself while explaining the ‘tell me about yourself, assuring them you will be a good fit for the company.

  • Onsite interview

The onsite is the most challenging step before you achieve the job offer. It is more comprehensive than the former steps and typically combines 4 or 5 interviews in a single stage. The combination might vary based on the type of role you have applied for.

  • Onboarding

After successfully completing all the hiring stages, you will be moved to the onboarding process, where the employers will explain your role, timelines, and requirements in detail. This is an opportunity for the candidates to learn about the company and the perfect time to address your concerns.

How to prepare for a data science interview?

Do you have a data science interview around the corner? It is easy to get nervous over the process because of the fear of being unable to answer the data science interview questions accurately. Nonetheless, every interview is a new learning experience. Here, we have compiled various factors that must be implemented before your interview to help you get into the recruitment pipeline. 

  • Build compelling resume

Before you prepare for your data science interview questions, you must spend adequate time crafting the basic professional material – the resume and cover letter. Building a compelling resume is essential since they show the recruiters how you chose to represent you and your skills as a professional. 

Avoid typos and boasting about yourself with pages long since it will lead to rejection. Instead, ensure the resume is well-prepared in a definite matter, captivating the attention of employers with your skills and achievements. 

  • Develop a portfolio

Recruiters looking to hire data scientists for their organisations prefer those with a great project portfolio. Despite the applicant’s educational background, they must showcase their performance and skill set in various technological projects. Hence while applying for the data science job, you need to get hands-on experience to land a top gig as a potential data scientist.

  • Brush up on coding skills

The frequency of coding questions might vary from one organisation to another. Hence you should brush up on your coding skills, encompassed in subcategories of SQL, Data structure and algorithms, Modelling, and even statistical coding. 

It is because most data scientist recruiters require a person with a solid technical skill set who can work their organisation’s huge datasets, understating the complexity and solving real-world problems.

  • Revisit basic concepts

Demonstrating your skill in any data scientist interview is challenging unless you are proficient in basic concepts of the field. Hence, if you are out of touch with the basics of data science, then it’s time to revive your knowledge of the fundamentals. The candidates need to familiarise themselves with datasets, coding algorithms, and popular case studies related to data science.    

  • Prepare answers for commonly asked questions

No matter how hard you have prepared for the interview, you might always be curious about the structure of the interview and the type of question you will be asked. Hence, practising commonly asked questions will help you understand the issue’s scope and constraints. 

Moreover, data science interview questions are not only about getting the right answers. It is about your critical thinking and how you collaborate with others.      

  • Understand the role and the company

Despite the interview stage you are in, learn more about the role you have applied for and the company. Research is the essential trend to know about the organisation in the industry and learn about competitors’ actions. 

If you have a greater idea of your role’s expectations and the company’s vision, it will be easy for you to prove what you can do for their development.

  • Prepare some questions to ask the interviewer

And in the final part of your interview, employers might give you a chance to voice your questions. Remember, as an aspiring data scientist. You should always have some questions in hand to ask them as it indicates that you are truly interested in the position and company. 

You can also ask about your concerns or doubts since it will be the best time to clear them out. Some of the good questions you can ask your interviewer are – 

  • How new is the role?
  • Are there any previous instances of the company using results delivered by data scientists?

SituationalTell us one of the most challenging data science project you have worked on
Data AnalysisHow should one treat outlier values?
Machine LearningHow do you avoid overfitting your model?

Top interview questions for data science

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that combines statistics, machine learning, computer science and other technologies to extract patterns and valuable insights. Here are some of the common interview questions for data science.

Python interview questions for data science

The ability to solve Python coding in data science is the best way to ace the interview. There we will lead you through the most commonly asked python-related questions for both fresher and experienced professionals.

Statistics interview questions for data science

The most important part of data science interview questions ranges from basics like central tendency to applying p-value in the project. Let us explore some statistical interview questions for a data science interview.

Tips to excel in the interview 

Interviewing in data science is a tricky part. Hence we have outlined some effective tips to help you make a great first impression. 

  • Despite the interview stage, presenting yourself with a positive impression is the most critical part of the process. You may be an excellent grade-holder and proficient in skills, but it will not usually convince your employer to hire you. From arriving in smart business attire and maintaining body language to voicing the responses in the right mindset will significantly impact the employer’s decision.
  • Even though you want to make yourself appealing, don’t extra-embellish your technical skills or experience. For instance, if you don’t have an SQL skillset beyond academics, be honest and upfront about it. Employers emphasise character, similar to your skills and experience with tools. 
  • Go through the entire job description thoroughly, and know the expectations and take from the organisation. With a clear idea, you can nail the interview confidently by tailoring your responses to cater to your technical skills, soft skills, or critical thinking ability.
  • If you have researched the company, prepare a set of genuine questions instead of asking generic ones for the sake of it.  Clarifying the questions and concerns like ‘what would a typical work of a data scientist look like in your firm’ at the end of the interview will be more appropriate and enable you to take your final decision for the role.
  • It’s a good idea to come to the interview prepared. However, the mode doesn’t have to resemble a Q&A session about machine learning and case studies. Be engaged in the interview and make it sound like a conversation from the outset. A two-way conversation mode will be more effective and impress your recruiter while you contribute your thoughts. However, avoid interrupting your interviewer.


The demand has increased for highly qualified professionals who understand the business and technological era in the data science industry. Acquiring an advanced data science certification is the key to remaining confident and competitive in the market and gaining a lucrative career. 
Enrol in the smart Master’s Program in Data Science offered by the Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) with Online Manipal to gain high-quality career-oriented education. Ultimately, the key aspects to achieving victory in the data science interview can be summed up by putting your efforts into being adequately prepared, which will give you the confidence to succeed.

How to stand out in an interview? 

It is said that ‘First impression is the last impression’. A job interview gives you the opportunity to leave an initial mark in an organisation, and you need to prove yourself to get that position. In the present cut-throat job market, you need to work hard to stand out from others in terms of your hard skills and soft skills. By effectively presenting your knowledge and skills with the right body language leaves a remarkable impression on the interviewer and improves your chance of securing the job. The employer might check how familiar you are with the organisation and your motivation for applying for this job. The following are some of the points you can work upon to stand out in an interview: 

Do your Research  

Explore the organisation you are planning to get into, as it will help you understand the company’s culture, goals, requirements, achievements, and other details. Go through the organisation’s vision and mission statements, history, and interest group to give a reasonable reaction. 

Exhibit how you can add value to the organization. 

The employer looks for candidates who can add value to the organisation and in the due course of time proves to be ideal for the group. So, highlight your abilities as well as personal traits, as they are significant and can be the determining parameters for the final round of the interview. Make the best use of the opportunity to showcase your strengths, achievements, and abilities. Talk with certainty and authority about your skills and work insights and how you can benefit the organisation. Plan and demonstrate a career objective for yourself and how it will benefit the organization. 

Bring a hard copy of your resume with a cover letter 

The recruitment managers go through several resumes at the time of shortlisting the candidates. It is possible that they have forgotten what made them give you a call for the interview. So, the resume and cover letter in hand serve the purpose of giving them a fresh look at why they picked you. 

Describe more than your resume 

The employer has previously perused your resume, so they know the nuts and bolts about your education qualification, work experience, and abilities. The interview is the right opportunity to give some extra information about your distinguished qualities and talents. Use this opportunity to give more insights into your previous accomplishments. Explain how you helped overcome tough situations, provided valuable inputs, and the recognition you received from your previous employer(s). This will help you in making a place for yourself.  

Speak genuinely and confidently 

Avoid giving the usual answers or just saying what the employer wants to hear. Such kind of answers can make you seem dishonest or tricky, and neither will help you with pushing ahead in the interview. What will help you stand apart is talking honestly and being your genuine self. All things considered, not simply abilities and experience will get you the job, it is the impact you create in the given time that sets you apart from the rest. 

Focus on your non-verbal communication 

Your non-verbal communication says a lot, and it’s equally important as your verbal communication. Focus on your body language, appearance, and the way you use gestures and posture. Good posture and strong eye contact likewise help you in establishing a decent connection. Remember, you might be fluent and confident but if you are not maintaining your posture, you might lose the opportunity. The same goes for eye contact in case you are not maintaining the eye contact and looking elsewhere while talking gives the impression that you are either nervous or lying.  

Show your enthusiasm by asking the right questions 

In case the interviewer gives you the opportunity to ask something, grab the chance to show your willingness and dedication to get the job by asking questions related to the organisation. For e.g. You can ask questions related to the work culture, organisational hierarchy, future goals, etc. By making inquiries that will give you an understanding of what it is like to work for the organisation, you are showing the employer that you are really intrigued by the job. Additionally, it gives you an opportunity to know the organisation better. Avoid questions regarding perks and leave policies in the initial phase, such queries should only be asked when your candidature is confirmed. 

Dress sense 

The way you dress for the interview should match the clothing regulation of the working environment. Dress in formal attire. If you cannot say much about what the clothing standard is, go with business casuals. Clothing should be neat, clean, and pressed. Avoid bright and flashy colours. Make sure your hair is neatly combed and set. 

Go to your interview venue early 

Reach the venue before time to avoid the last-minute hassle. Make sure that you have all the necessary documents. Being right on time for your interview shows the employer that you can be relied upon to fulfill time constraints and are ready to face any challenge.  

Depict your accomplishments 

During the interview, you should highlight your achievements. In a humble way, relate the various outcomes you’ve created in your past jobs. Take the period of the last five years in such cases. You will need to stress your methodology and how your abilities and experience are useful for your new job. 

Lastly, have the confidence to get things done in your favour and learn from the present interview experience.  


Regardless of how knowledgeable and resourceful you are, it’s important that you present yourself and convey your abilities to the interviewer in an effective manner. Your soft skills, body language, and the way you conduct yourself during the interview are equally important as your technical skills and subject knowledge. Being punctual, attentive, dignified, and confident helps you leave a good impression and stand out in an interview. 

Advantages of cloud computing

Key takeaways:

  • The cloud computing system is the delivery of online services via the internet.
  • Hosts run every cloud application. Based on this, it can be bifurcated into three types: public cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud. 
  • The advantages of cloud computing are centred around access at ease and high-security measures. 

Cloud computing is a term for executing computing services on the internet. Computing services include servers, storage, databases, analytics, intelligence, software and networking. PHP is the programming language used in development and cloud computing because of its ease of learning and employment. So, while you don’t initially have to know how to code, you can still achieve knowledge of programming skills at the time of studying cloud. Today, the advantages of cloud computing have grown manifolds, and we shall explore those as we progress in the article.

General skills for cloud computing –

  • Platform expertise 
  • Programming languages (AWS) 
  • Application programming interfaces (APIs) 
  • Database management 
  • Network management 
  • Development and operations (DevOps)
  • Machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) 
  • Cloud Security
  • Hybrid cloud 

How cloud computing works

The cloud is a broadcasted platform to share data all over the world via satellite networks. As a host for each cloud application exists, the hosting companies are accountable for maintaining gigantic data centres. Any error in this will lead to a massive downfall in security, storage capacity and the huge power supply required to run all the data users share across the cloud. 

The hosting companies own the privilege to sell their cloud rights so that they can operate and save data on their private networks while providing the end user with an ecosystem for the communication between devices and applications. 

Given below in tabular format are the different types of clouds and how they function:

Public cloudPrivate cloud Hybrid cloud
It guarantees public cloud access everywhere.It is similar to public cloud, with the exception that infrastructure needs are offered by the company of the user of the service. A good old combination of both public and private models. 
Examples of users: Amazon, Microsoft, Apple and GoogleExamples of users: VMware, Microsoft Corporation, AWS, Cisco Systems, Red Hat Software, Dell, OpenStackInfinidat, Ensono, Threat Stack, DataCore Software Unitas Global

Benefits of cloud computing 

With the cloud computing technology ageing for almost two decades now, there still remains a large enough chunk of the business community that continues to function without the cloud. 

An international data group study claims that 69 per cent of the business are pre-existing users of the cloud in some of the other forms, while 18 per cent admit that they aspire to implement it soon. Also, Dell reports that businesses investing in huge data, the cloud, mobility, and heavy security boast up to 53 per cent of the increased growth rate of revenue in comparison with their competitors. 

Companies and industries identify the benefits of the cloud computing trend as a factor that puts them ahead in the market. A result of this is a rise in profit margins, leading to happy customers and equally joyous employees. The advantages of cloud databases are as follows:

  • Cost-effective

Because huge servers take the weight of complex technology remotely, customers do not need to invest in expenses such as hardware that demands regular upgrades. The cost is sparsely distributed across all cloud customers. Operations conducted in this manner give customers access to increased speed and capable hardware at a cheaper rate.

  • Data security

Building a database is no overnight success, which is why cloud computing systems fully grasp the importance of securing data. The years that the company has toiled to create a brand position to earn customer loyalty and revenue are all at the risk of cyber crimes. Cloud provides you with features like granular permissions and access management through federated roles that restrict the direct access to sensitive information to the employees who require it for work.  

  • Flexibility 

With a limited amount of focus to divide among your various business-related responsibilities, relying on an external organisation to manage IT hosting and infrastructure will help you concentrate more on aspects of your business alone. This takes off pressure building up from issues with respect to computer and data storage.

  • Mobility

Cloud computing can now be accessible on smartphones. This is truly a revolutionary step in ensuring no one is left out. A healthier work-life balance can be achieved through the cloud as it offers easy access to information on travelling sales staff, freelance employees and remote employees.

  • Scalability

Scaling up and down your business needs is no more your responsibility as your cloud service provider will take care of it as per what you prefer. This gives way to easy operation and management of storage concerns. It grants you all the more time to single-mindedly focus on the running of your business. 

  • Enhanced collaboration 

Businesses with two or more employees must prioritise collaboration, and cloud computing comes to your aid on collaboration. While collaboration is very much possible without a cloud-computing solution, it would not be as simple. 

With specialised services like collaborative social spaces (for example connecting employees all over the organisation, hence magnifying interest and engagement), collaboration is made extremely accessible.

  • Quality control 

Businesses can slow down because simple aspects have gone wrong. This implies low quality and unreliable reporting. The cloud system’s organisation skills beat every other system as all documents are stored in one commonplace consistent format. Such an approach enables one to maintain uniformity of days, prevent human errors, and have crystal clear ideas of upcoming updates. 

  • Disaster recovery 

You could spend an overload of time planning your business to crispy minute details, ensuring it is absolutely foolproof. Yet, some factors will never completely be in your control. This downtime—lost productivity, lost revenue and brand reputation tampered, may be a bigger hit to your business than you could ever imagine. 

While this cannot be fully avoided, cloud computing helps to recover. It is equipped with speedy data recovery for catastrophic events from natural disasters to massive power outages.

  • Loss prevention 

Without the cloud, all of your indispensable data is hopelessly encased in the office computers it was entered in. This problem will be more prominent when one of your local hardware gives up, erasing that only copy of your data. On a cloud server, however, your information can offer comfortable access through any computer on any inherent connection, regardless of abrupt malfunction.

  • Unlimited storage

Cloud has an infinite amount of space to hold any kind of data in various cloud types. It depends on the availability, performance level and frequency of the information that needs to be accessed. Based on these, the rule of thumb says that the expense of storage keeps going up with use and time. 

If surpassing the business limits, this cost can be brought down through the creation and optimisation of the cloud expense structure policy. 

  • Competitive edge

Some businesses choose to keep it local by sticking to the old ways. This can give you a headstart and put you ahead of your competitors with the cloud at the other end of your fingers. A recent Verizon study reflects that 77 percent of businesses sense that this technology served them with a competitive edge. Also, 16 percent of these believe it is true. 

  • Sustainability 

Just dumping a recycling bin in some corner of the breakroom is no longer enough to claim that organisations are acting up on saving this planet. Real action involves solutions that address eco-friendly ways at every level of the organisation. Fewer carbon footprint is an environmentally sound result of hosting on the cloud. 

Uses of cloud computing technology 

Cloud Computing Technology has several uses specific to Information Technology. They are listed below – 

  • Data backups
  • Recovery of lost data
  • Email services 
  • Virtual desktops
  • Software development and testing
  • Massive data analysis 
  • Customer-facing web applications 

Disadvantages of cloud computing 

No system is devoid of flaws and outbreaks, and cloud computing isn’t either –  

  • Data confidentiality threat 
  • Heavily relies on internet connection 
  • Security levels 
  • Compliance deviation
  • Vulnerability to attack
  • Mobility of data
  • Technical issues

How can I launch a career in cloud computing? 

Follow this step-by-step process to become a cloud professional –

  • Get a bachelor’s degree in any technical field
  • Get yourself enrolled in a cloud development course
  • Study a programming language
  • Work on cloud-focused projects
  • Get relevant experience 

The Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) with Online Manipal offers professional certification courses in cloud computing, logistics and supply chain management, management, and business analytics. Enrol with Online Manipal today to get the best experience at a well-reputed institution.

ALSO READ: Benefits of learning cloud computing courses online

Sum up

A benefit of cloud computing is that it makes accessing information umpteen times easier and more convenient. It offers the most speedy innovation, incredible flexibility of resources, along with economies of scale. 

30 Financial Analyst interview questions you should know

Financial analysts analyse financial data and utilise the results of their findings to assist businesses in making financial decisions. Frequently, their analysis is intended to aid businesses in making important investment decisions.

Some of the essential responsibilities and duties that a financial analyst performs regularly are as follows:

  • Assessing current and previous financial statistics, data, and performance.
  • Preparing analysis-based reports and projections.
  • Examining current capital investments and losses.
  • Examining investment opportunities.
  • Developing and reviewing profit plans.
  • Identifying financial performance trends and making improvement suggestions.
  • Reviewing financial information and forecasts with other members of the finance team.
  • Creating financial models.

How much does a financial analyst make? 

The national average salary for a financial analyst is ₹ 4.0 LPA in India. The salary of a financial analyst ranges from ₹ 2.1 Lakhs to ₹ 10.1 Lakhs based on their skills and years of experience. 

Helpful article: How to get a job in the finance sector

Who is eligible for the position of a financial analyst?

The following are the essential eligibility criteria for applying for the position of the financial analyst:

  • 0 – 3 years of working experience in company finance or other relevant fields
  • Bachelor’s degree in Accounting, Finance, Economics, or any other relevant fields
  • Expertise in financial modelling techniques
  • Strong analytical and data collection abilities
  • Advance understanding of different excel or sheets functions
  • Excellent understanding of businesses and financial models
  • Outstanding interpersonal skills and problem-solving abilities

Individuals with an MBA degree are usually preferred as they display the appropriate skills and experiences needed for the job.

Potential interview questions for financial analyst job aspirants

Here are 30 potential financial analyst interview questions and answers that are asked to candidates applying for the role of a financial analyst.

1. What four financial statements are used to monitor a company’s finances?

The four financial statements that are used to monitor a company’s finances are: 

  • Balance sheets
  • Income statements 
  • Cash flow statement
  • Statements of shareholders’ equity

2. Explain financial modelling.

Financial modelling is a process wherein a company’s expenditures and incomes are summarised (usually into spreadsheets) to predict the impact of a future event or decision. It is also very impactful for the following tasks:

  • Estimating the value of any business
  • Comparing competitors
  • Strategic planning
  • Experimenting with various scenarios
  • Budgeting and allocating funds
  • Measuring the effects of economic policy changes

3. What is a cash flow statement?

In simple terms, a cash flow statement is a financial statement that summarises the movement of cash and cash equivalents (CCE) that come in and go out of a company. 

4. What is the best evaluation metric for analysing a company’s stock?

The most common method for determining a stock’s value is to calculate the company’s price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio. The P/E ratio is calculated by dividing the company’s stock price by its most recently reported earnings per share (EPS).

5. Tell me about quarterly forecasting and expense models.

Quarterly forecasting is the analysis of expenses and revenue that are expected to be produced or incurred in the future. An expense model specifies which expense categories are permitted on a specific type of work order, which serves as the foundation for budget creation. It aids in identifying variable and fixed costs and serves as a foundation for accurately forecasting the company’s expected profit or loss.

6. What process do you use to create sales reports?

Sales reports are written summaries of a company’s sales activities for a given time frame. These reports often contain data on revenue, leads, new clients, and sales volume. Creating a sales report is a detailed step-by-step process requiring a thorough understanding of the requirements and the purpose of making the report. Filing a sales report can be implemented by adhering to the following steps.

  • Identify the report’s target audience and goals
  • Choose a specific time frame
  • Gather pertinent information
  • Describe the data
  • Make it appealing to the viewers

7. Do you have any industry licence or certifications? If so, what are they?

An interviewer may ask this question to know if your qualifications are suitable for the position. If you have certifications or licensure, this is a perfect chance to discuss how they helped improve your skills.

8. What financial methodologies do you use for conducting an analysis?

Analysts employ various strategies to gain a thorough grasp of a company’s financial performance. The three methods of financial analysis most frequently used are ratio and trend analysis, vertical analysis, and horizontal analysis.

9. List the differences between a journal and a ledger

Transactions are recorded in a supplementary book of accounts called the journal. A ledger is a primary book of accounts to organise the transactions entered in a journal. The journal entries are entered in reverse chronological order from the day of the transaction.

*The ledger includes specific accounts taken from the original journal, a book where all financial transactions are first recorded. So in layman’s terms, journals are the raw books that play a pivotal role in preparing the ledger. It gives us a second conclusion: if you wrongly prepare a journal, your ledger will also be faulty.

However, here recruiter will ask this question during the financial analyst interview to understand your foundational knowledge as this, directly or indirectly, relates to the Financial Analyst job role, which is mentioned below:

  • Reviewing journal entries (to ensure the data is correct)
  • Checking the distribution work area to manage journal entries for ledgers
  • Ensuring that all accounting standards are met
  • Verifying the set of subsidiaries or management segment values
  • Managing sub-ledger source transaction
  • Recurring general ledger journal entries
  • Reviewing financial statements and other transactions

10. What is ‘cost accountancy’?

Cost accountancy is the application of costing and cost accounting principles, methods, and techniques to the science, art, and practice of cost control and the ascertainment of profitability and the presentation of information for managerial decision-making.

11. Name the various financial statements.

There are four main financial statements:

  • Balance sheets
  • Income statements 
  • Cash flow statement
  • Statements of shareholders’ equity

12. What do you know about the stock market?

A stock market is where investors buy and sell company shares. It is a network of exchanges where companies trade shares and other securities.

13. What is ‘capital structure’?

In corporate finance, capital structure refers to the combination of several external funding sources, also known as capital, utilised to finance a company. It is listed on the firm’s balance sheet and comprises equity owned by shareholders, debt, and preferred shares.

14. How would the income statement change if a company’s debts increased?

Interest payments on debt lower the net income and cash flow but do not erode ownership. Due to the decreased taxable income, this decrease in net income also provides a tax advantage. Leverage ratios like debt-to-equity and debt-to-total capital grow when debt levels rise.

*An interviewer asks this question to assess how prepared you are for a financial analyst position and whether you have the correct expertise to perform well. Your answer should directly address how company debt affects an income statement. Example: “If a company’s debts increase, this would decrease the net income (or profit) listed in a company’s income statement.”

How would you explain solvency to a person without financial knowledge?

Solvency is the ability of a company to meet its long-term debts and other financial obligations. Solvency is the measure of a company’s financial health since it demonstrates its ability to manage operations into the foreseeable future. Investors can use ratios to analyse a company’s solvency. An example of a business with solvency is that it can pay all its bills – the ability to pay debts, specifically interest debt payments, when they are due. 

16. What do you know about valuation techniques?

For calculating the valuation of a business or stocks, generally, the following three types of valuation techniques are used:

  • DCF analysis – helps in forecasting future cash flows
  • Comparable company analysis – helps in comparing the current worth of one business to other similar companies using P/E and EBITDA.
  • Precedent transactions – helps in identifying the transactional values of a company by comparing an interaction with other businesses which have been sold recently.

*You may also consider the following courses for a better understanding of the subject:

  • Payroll Management Courses
  • GST Courses
  • IFRS Courses
  • Commercial Banking Courses
  • Taxation Courses

17. What is ratio analysis?

Ratio analysis is a quantitative approach used by financial analysts to gain deeper insights into a company’s overall equity analysis by studying its financial statements. Stakeholders can assess a company’s profitability, liquidity, operational efficiency, and solvency status by the ratio analysis method. It aids in:

  • Examining the current performance of your company with past performance
  • Avoiding potential financial risks and problems 
  • Comparing your organisation with other 
  • Making more substantial and data-driven decisions

Some of the most frequently analysed financial ratios are:

  • Liquidity ratios
  • Solvency ratios
  • Efficiency ratios
  • P/E and dividend ratios

18. How do you create financial analysis reports?

The financial analysis report focuses on a company’s financial strengths and shortcomings. The data on a financial analysis report indicates the company’s financial health to investors. A financial analysis report can be used to pique the attention of investors and aid in the expansion of a firm. The steps below are followed in developing financial analysis reports:

  • Collect financial statements – You have to collect financial data in order to prepare your financial analysis report. Collect financial statements as well as other documentation such as income statements, cash flow statements, and balance sheets. Compile any financial notes, quarterly or annual records, and government reports (if applicable).
  • Calculate ratios – Determine certain ratios that can aid in the analysis of your company’s financial health. For example, you may compute and include your company’s return on investment ratio. Determine which ratios are essential to your firm and fill out your financial analysis report with those ratios and calculations.
  • Perform a risk assessment – Investors want to know if the company is worth the risk. Conduct a risk assessment to demonstrate to investors that the company is worth investing in. It can be done by:
    • Identifying risks
    • Documenting the found risks
    • Evaluating risk control measures
    • Regularly assessing threats
  • Assess the value of your company – Finally, figure out the value of your company. Estimate the value of your company’s stock and how much value it can bring to investors.

19.  Differentiate between a P&L statement and a balance sheet?

A balance sheet gives thes summary of the financial position of a company for a specific point in time. The profit and loss statement gives info about revenues and expenses during a set period.

20. Differentiate between cash flow and free cash flow.

Free Cash Flow refers to the remaining cash available for investors after considering money for operating and investing expenses. It is used to find the value of a business in its current position. Free cash flow helps in defining the business valuation required by investors. It includes capital expenditure and changes in Net Working Capital. 

On the other hand, cash flow is used to find cash inflow in various business activities, for example, operating, investing, and financing. 

21. How will you gauge a company’s liquidity?

Measuring the firm’s liquidity means finding the company’s ability to pay its current debt with its existing assets. Here is an essential process to measure the company’s liquidity:

  • Calculate the current ratio of the company (Current Assets/Current Liabilities)
  • Calculate the quick ratio (Current Assets-Inventory/Current Liabilities)
  • Find the Net Working Capital of the company (Current Assets – Current Liabilities)

However, if you choose between cash flow or income, the better idea is to gauge the company’s liquidity based on cash flow since using earnings is a more reliable approach.

22. What is variance analysis?

Variance analysis is the quantitative analysis of the difference between planned and actual numbers. The sum of all variances depicts the overall over-performance or under-performance for a particular reporting period. Companies assess the favourability of each item by comparing actual costs to standard costs in the industry.

23. Tell me about EBITDA. 

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortisation, or EBITDA, is a method of measuring the total financial success of a company. It frequently serves as a replacement for other indicators, including earnings, revenue, and income.

There are two methods to calculate this:

#Method 1:

EBITDA=Net Income Interest Taxes D A




#Method 2:

EBITDA=Operating Profit DE AE


DE=Depreciation expense

AE=Amortisation expense

24. If you encounter inconsistencies in a company’s finances, how will you handle the situation?

An employer uses this question to determine how you would react to a potential problem or an ethical dilemma. In your response, demonstrate your devotion to ethical business practices and enforcement. Example: “In my previous position, I was analysing a small business’s financial records when I noticed that a portion of funds had disappeared from its income statement. There was no record of where these funds went, and the same amount was missing each month, so I talked with my supervisor and we brought it to the business owner’s attention.”

25. What do you feel is the best profitability model to forecast your projects?

I would usually choose a profitability model that reflected the type of business I was forecasting, but if I had to choose one for all of my projects, I would use the financial model because a company’s finances constantly fluctuate.

*Interviewers use this question to gauge your knowledge of industry terminology. When you give your answer, specify a model and explain your reasoning for choosing it.

26. Explain why you should analyse long-term liability.

Debts outstanding for more than a year refer to long-term liability. By analysing it, a company can know its financial strength.

27. What are the components of the DuPont model, and how do you calculate them?

Asset turnover ratio, financial leverage, and net profit margin are the main aspects of the DuPont model. A company’s return on equity (ROE) is evaluated with these. 

Net Profit Margin is calculated with the following steps:

Profit Margin = Net Income/Revenue

The formula for calculating the Asset Turnover Ratio is:

Asset Turnover Ratio = Net Sales (or Revenue) / Average Assets

Financial Leverage is calculated by:

Financial leverage = Average Assets / Average Equity

28. How are the income, balance, and cash flow statements related?

The three financial statements are linked to net income, calculated on the income statement (after the deduction of all expenses from the company’s income). The income statement’s bottom line is the net income. Net income is linked to the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. Net income transfers into stockholders’ equity via cash flows on the balance sheet. Net income is the first line on the cash flow statement since it determines cash flows from business activities.

29. How do assets and liabilities affect a company’s cash flow?

There are a few aspects of how a cash flow of an organisation can be affected:

  • Change in accounts receivable
  • Change in inventory 
  • Change in prepaid expenses
  • Depreciation factor
  • Change in operating liabilities          

30. What do you mean by working capital? Explain the various types.

The working capital formula best defines current assets minus current liabilities. The primary function of working capital is to analyse the total amount of money you have readily available to meet the demand of all the current expenses. 

Types of Working Capital

  • Permanent Working Capital
  • Regular Working Capital
  • Reserve Margin Working Capital
  • Variable Working Capital
  • Seasonal Variable Working Capital
  • Special Variable Working Capital
  • Gross Working Capital
  • Net Working Capital

*Financial analysts play a significant role in being information mediators in capital markets, so understanding working capital needs is essential. Also, analysts must stay on their toes to forecast the actual working capital requirements, significantly when the company is constantly growing or expanding. Also, you can highlight a few prior incidents when your existing company felt the need for additional working capital. You can even back your answer with the ways you used to boost the working capital.

Related articles:

MBA finance course guide

Key concepts to learn in MBA finance course

MBA in finance or M.Com in finance

Know how Online Manipal’s placement assistance programme helps you land your dream job

Online Manipal, the online platform of Manipal University Jaipur, provides a range of UGC entitled finance-related courses and placement assistance programmes to students. Various finance-related courses provided by Online Manipal include B.Com, M.Com, MBA in Finance, MBA in IT & Fintech, and MBA in BFSI. The courses are designed by industry experts to equip students with relevant skills and experiences for a bright future.

Students are prepared to be focused and interview-ready for future opportunities. Sessions like resume review, LinkedIn profile building, interpersonal skills, business guidelines etc., are provided to groom students for their future careers. Career advisory and skill development programmes provide additional benefits to students enrolled in the online programmes. The placement cell works with leading organisations to offer internships and jobs to potential students across various sectors. Final selection happens based on the hiring company, their recruitment policies and candidature fit. 


The financial analyst role is essential for a company’s financial planning and analysis department. They help in analysing financial statements and predicting the future of the company. They also forecast future expenses and revenues in modelling capital structure and budgeting. They keep track of the financial plan, analyse the company’s performance, along with changes and market trends. They help calculate variances and trends between forecasts and actuals and find out the causes of these variances. Their job is to report findings to the management and stakeholders and help shape the company’s strategic planning.

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