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Multimodal biometrics: Concepts, types & application

Biometrics, situated at the nexus of technological innovation and security imperatives, has experienced a metamorphic evolution, transcending traditional identification and authentication methods. This evolution is marked by the assimilation of a myriad of biometric modalities into a unified framework, ushering in the era of multimodal biometrics.  

Positioned as a sophisticated approach, multimodal biometrics involves the amalgamation of distinct physiological and behavioral traits, presenting a formidable strategy to elevate the efficacy of identification and authentication processes. In the context of this comprehensive guide, our primary objective is to meticulously unveil the latent power and expansive potential inherent in multimodal biometrics. 

At its core, multimodal biometrics encapsulates the fusion of various biometric modalities, a strategic integration that goes beyond the capabilities of single-modal systems. This synthesis draws from a diverse array of traits, including fingerprints, facial features, iris patterns, and voice characteristics. By combining these disparate elements, multimodal biometrics aims to create a holistic and nuanced understanding of an individual’s identity. This is not merely a convergence of technologies; it is a quantum leap in the realm of security systems, where the amalgamation of diverse biometric modalities presents a promising solution to the limitations that have traditionally plagued single-modal systems. 

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The sophistication of multimodal biometrics becomes apparent when considering the intricate tapestry of physiological and behavioral traits it encompasses. Physiological traits, such as fingerprints and iris patterns, offer a high degree of uniqueness and permanence, while behavioral traits, including voice and typing patterns, provide dynamic and context-aware insights. The fusion of these traits, each contributing a layer to the multifaceted identity puzzle, leads to a more comprehensive and robust identification process. In this era where security is not merely a preference but an imperative, the emergence of multimodal biometrics signifies a paradigm shift, offering a multifaceted solution to the challenges faced by conventional identification methods. 

This comprehensive guide endeavors to delve deeply into the fundamental definition and conceptual underpinnings of multimodal biometrics, elucidating its nuanced approach to identification and authentication. In a contemporary landscape where security breaches loom large, understanding the intricacies of multimodal biometrics becomes imperative. Not only does this guide aim to provide clarity on the definition of multimodal biometrics, but it also accentuates its pivotal role in the mosaic of modern security systems. 

As we navigate the intricate terrain of identification technologies, it becomes evident that the fusion of diverse biometric modalities within the framework of multimodal biometrics is not merely a technological innovation; it is a strategic response to the escalating challenges posed by sophisticated security threats. In an era where data breaches and identity theft are recurrent concerns, the emphasis on the fusion of diverse biometric traits signifies a proactive step towards fortifying security systems. The promise of multimodal biometrics lies not only in its sophistication but also in its potential to usher in a new era of security, where the limitations of single-modal systems are surpassed, and a more robust, accurate, and secure identification paradigm emerges. 

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Biometric modalities – An overview 

The realm of biometric modalities is expansive and dynamic, encompassing a diverse array of identification techniques, each characterized by its unique strengths and limitations. At the forefront of widely adopted modalities are fingerprint and face recognition, two pillars that have shaped the landscape of biometric security. Fingerprint recognition, with its long-standing history, stands out for its simplicity and widespread use. The uniqueness of fingerprint patterns provides a robust basis for individual identification, making it a cornerstone in various authentication systems. 

Alongside fingerprint recognition, face recognition has gained immense popularity, driven by its non-intrusive nature and ease of implementation. The ability to identify individuals based on facial features has found applications ranging from smartphone unlocking to surveillance systems. However, both fingerprint and face recognition modalities come with their set of limitations. Fingerprint recognition may face challenges in scenarios where the quality of the print is compromised or when dealing with individuals with certain skin conditions. Face recognition, on the other hand, can be susceptible to variations in lighting conditions and may encounter difficulties in scenarios where facial features are obscured. 

Moving beyond these widely adopted modalities, the landscape becomes more advanced with the inclusion of iris and voice recognition. Iris recognition, known for its high accuracy, leverages the unique patterns of the iris to establish identity. The intricate details of the iris make it a powerful biometric identifier, often employed in high-security environments. Voice recognition, meanwhile, offers a distinctive approach by analyzing the vocal characteristics of an individual. This modality is valued for its convenience and has found applications in various sectors, including telecommunications and voice-controlled systems. 

Understanding the intricacies of these modalities is essential in appreciating the nuances of multimodal biometrics. This section provides an in-depth overview of each biometric technique, shedding light on the advantages they bring to the table, as well as the limitations that necessitate a more comprehensive approach. Fingerprint and face recognition, with their widespread use, set the stage for the exploration of more advanced modalities, emphasizing the need for a holistic understanding of the biometric landscape. 

By laying this groundwork, readers are equipped with the knowledge required for a more nuanced discussion on the potential synergies that multimodal biometrics can offer over traditional single-modal systems. The distinct characteristics of each modality, from the simplicity of fingerprint recognition to the non-intrusive nature of face recognition and the intricacy of iris and voice recognition, create a diverse toolkit. It is this diversity that multimodal biometrics leverages to overcome the limitations inherent in individual modalities, offering a more robust and reliable approach to identification and authentication. As we delve into the subsequent sections, the foundation laid here becomes the cornerstone for unravelling the intricacies and potential of multimodal biometrics. 

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The concept of multimodal biometrics 

Multimodal biometrics is a sophisticated and strategic amalgamation of diverse biometric techniques, transcending beyond a mere combination of individual methods. This approach is intricately designed to optimize the accuracy, security, and overall robustness of identification and authentication processes. In this pivotal section, we delve deeply into the core concept of multimodal biometrics, providing a nuanced and comprehensive understanding of its strategic fusion. 

At its essence, multimodal biometrics involves the integration of various biometric modalities, including fingerprint, face, iris, voice, and more. However, this integration is not arbitrary; it is a deliberate and well-thought-out fusion that aims to create a system far more powerful than the sum of its parts. The primary objective is to enhance the efficacy of identification and authentication processes by exploiting the unique strengths of each modality while compensating for their respective limitations. 

In defining multimodal biometrics, it’s essential to highlight that it is not a simple additive process but a strategic synergy among different modalities. This synergy leads to the development of a more comprehensive and sophisticated identification system. The detailed definition provided in this section emphasizes the intricate interplay between various biometric techniques, showcasing how their combination results in a holistic approach to identity verification. This holistic approach addresses the challenges posed by individual modalities, providing a more robust and reliable solution in the realm of biometric security. 

The explanation further underlines the benefits of fusion in multimodal biometrics. One of the key advantages is the ability to overcome the limitations inherent in individual modalities. While fingerprint recognition may excel in certain scenarios, it might falter in others. Similarly, facial recognition may face challenges in low-light conditions. By strategically fusing these modalities, multimodal biometrics creates a system that is not only versatile but also resilient to specific challenges that individual techniques might encounter. 

This strategic fusion also contributes to heightened accuracy in identification and authentication. The combined information from different modalities allows for more precise and reliable matching, reducing the likelihood of false positives and negatives. The resulting accuracy is particularly crucial in applications where security is paramount, such as access control systems, financial transactions, and government identity verification. 

Moreover, the emphasis on security in multimodal biometrics extends beyond accuracy. The fusion of different modalities adds layers of complexity to the identification process, making it more challenging for malicious actors to compromise. This added security is especially pertinent in contexts where the consequences of unauthorized access or identity fraud can be severe. 

As a paradigm shift in biometric security, multimodal biometrics represents a departure from the limitations of traditional single-modal systems. By strategically combining diverse biometric techniques, it not only addresses the weaknesses of individual modalities but also sets the stage for a more advanced, secure, and reliable future in identification and authentication. This profound understanding of multimodal biometrics positions it as a transformative force in the ongoing evolution of biometric technology. 

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Applications of multimodal biometrics 

In unveiling the true potential of multimodal biometrics, it is essential to recognize its diverse applications across a spectrum of industries. The multifaceted capabilities of this cutting-edge technology are most prominently showcased in its role in fortifying security and access control systems. By integrating various biometric modalities, such as fingerprint, face, iris, and voice recognition, organizations can establish a more robust and layered security infrastructure. This not only enhances the accuracy of identification but also serves as a formidable deterrent against unauthorized access. 

One of the critical domains where multimodal biometrics proves invaluable is in ensuring the integrity of financial transactions. The fusion of different biometric modalities adds an additional layer of authentication to financial systems, safeguarding sensitive information and preventing unauthorized access to accounts. In scenarios where traditional authentication methods may fall short, such as PINs or passwords, multimodal biometrics provides a more secure and reliable alternative. This is particularly crucial in today’s digital age, where financial transactions are increasingly conducted online and require heightened security measures. 

Beyond the realm of finance, the healthcare sector stands to benefit significantly from the implementation of multimodal biometrics. Patient data is highly sensitive, and ensuring the privacy and security of this information is paramount. Multimodal biometrics offers a robust solution for identity verification in healthcare settings, reducing the risk of medical identity theft and unauthorized access to patient records. This not only enhances data security but also streamlines access for authorized personnel, contributing to more efficient healthcare delivery. 

In the sphere of government and law enforcement, multimodal biometrics plays a pivotal role in identity verification. Government agencies leverage the capabilities of this technology to enhance security measures and ensure the accuracy of identification processes. Law enforcement agencies benefit from multimodal biometrics in criminal investigations, where accurate identification of individuals is crucial. The fusion of biometric modalities provides a comprehensive approach, reducing the likelihood of false positives and negatives, ultimately contributing to more effective law enforcement efforts. 

Moreover, in the context of border control systems, multimodal biometrics emerges as a linchpin for strengthening national security. The ability to combine facial recognition, fingerprint scanning, and other modalities enhances border control measures, allowing authorities to accurately verify the identity of individuals entering or exiting a country. This not only aids in preventing illegal immigration but also contributes to the overall security infrastructure, ensuring that only authorized individuals are granted access to a nation. 

By examining these diverse applications, readers gain profound insights into the real-world impact of multimodal biometrics on creating a safer and more efficient society. The technology’s ability to address security concerns across industries, from finance to healthcare and law enforcement, underscores its versatility and significance. As the world continues to navigate an increasingly digital and interconnected landscape, the role of multimodal biometrics in safeguarding sensitive information and ensuring accurate identification becomes increasingly indispensable. In essence, the applications of multimodal biometrics extend far beyond individual sectors, forming a crucial component of the broader endeavor to establish a secure and technologically advanced society. 

As stated above, biometric verification has a significant role in digital space. Technological advancement will amplify its necessity as cyber security and network security are crucial in the current world. If you wish to have a career in biometrics, you can pursue a Master of Science in Data Science. This program will help you learn advanced data science topics that include data mining, python programming, machine learning methods and more. A Master of Computer Application program will also help you learn network security and cyber security along with data science principles. Explore these courses in Online Manipal.

How to become a Legislative Assistant?

When it comes to choosing between the public and private sectors in India, there is a natural inclination towards the former. Several students, upon completion of their university degree, prefer to work in the public sector. The reasons are many – ample job opportunities, job security, fixed working hours, and competitive pay scales. The esteemed position of a Legislative Assistant is one of the top choices in the public sector among students after graduation. This blog explains the steps to take for getting on to the Legislative Assistant career path. 

Who is a Legislative Assistant?

Let us begin by understanding in the brief the exact definition of who a Legislative Assistant is. In simple words, a Legislative Assistant refers to a person who works for a legislator and assists them in day-to-day functions such as passing legislation to help them achieve their political objectives. Legislative Assistants also offer a wide variety of support services, such as communications, administrative services, and research. 

Steps to become a Legislative Assistant

If the above description fits you best and excites you into a career in legislative assistance, here’s how you can proceed on becoming a Legislative Assistant in the public sector:

  1. Obtain the required Legislative Assistant qualifications: Anyone with a Bachelor’s degree in preferably Public Administration, Political Science, or Social Science is eligible to apply for the role of a Legislative Assistant in India. Alternatively, you may choose to pursue a Master’s in a related field of study or gain some professional experience to open up career avenues in the domain.
  1. Apply for internships: Upon graduating from the degree program to pursue a career as a Legislative Assistant, it would be helpful to gain professional experience in the field via internships. You can apply for legislative internships and gain the required experience and skills to pursue the role independently later on.
  1. Apply for a PG degree: A postgraduate program in the field is also a good idea to advance your professional skills and knowledge base in the area. A PG degree can further provide the desired boost to your career prospects as a Legislative Assistant in India. 

Skills needed for Legislative Assistant

To become a successful Legislative Assistant, a few skills can come in very handy. These include the following:

  • Thorough research and analytical ability 
  • Organizational skills 
  • Finance and time management
  • Strong communication and interpersonal skills
  • Creativity in finding solutions to complex problems

Roles & responsibilities of Legislative Assistant

Let us now take a quick look at some of the common Legislative Assistant job roles that a Legislative Assistant is expected to take up in the position:

  • Research and analysis of proposed legislation
  • Handling public relations on behalf of the legislator, which includes drafting press releases for the media
  • Serving as the primary point of contact between legislators, assembly constituents, and other responsible stakeholders. 
  • Provide administrative support to the legislator, as and when required, in tasks such as speech-writing, policy development, and preparing briefs for meetings and committee hearings.
  • Offer complete assistance in the lawmaking processes, carrying out legal surveys to collect details for drafting the necessary legislation.

Legislative Assistant salary in India 

The actual salary of a Legislative Assistant in India is likely to vary from one person to another, between different locations in the country, and also corresponding to the different Legislative Assistant responsibilities. However, for indicative purposes, it may be noted that the average annual salary of a Legislative Assistant is estimated at approximately INR 4,25,041 per annum.


We learned in this blog all about the process of becoming a Legislative Assistant in India. The exact qualifications required for the role as well as other necessary skills have been outlined. Most students in India choose to advance their knowledge base by pursuing a PG degree in a relevant field of study to assume the role of a Legislative Assistant in the country. 

An MA in Political Science is one of the best choices to consider if you are serious about a career in this arena. The course provides the perfect stepping stone to explore interesting opportunities in the field of public policy and government jobs. Sikkim Manipal University offers online courses in MA Political Science, offering the much-desired flexibility and convenience to study at your own time and place and pursue a pace of learning that best suits your requirements. 

Stay relevant in the age of Artificial Intelligence 

Do you find Artificial Intelligence mastering all the skills you have built over time with much effort and patience? 

Do you think that AI is likely to take over the job you are working hard to sustain?  

Do you feel that AI could easily replace your know-how of technology and other scientific domains? 

If your answer is yes to even one of the above questions, then read through this article on how to build resilience and immunity towards Artificial Intelligence.  

1. Human-centric skills: AI can learn and master most of the skills except the ones that often need human intervention. Therefore build on skills that only human can rightfully intervene into.   

2. Context of Problem: AI can be able to skill up in almost every task that you are trained on, but it cannot understand context of a problem exactly same as that of human intelligence. Hence the best way to solve some problems will be to take help of human intelligence. Identify such problems and master the art of solving them better than the machine ever could.  

3. Ethical Dilemmas: AI cannot resolve moral and ethical dilemmas like how you can. Critical thinking is one of the skills that human being will lead the way through. Imbibing critical thinking in your day to day tasks can help resolve the AI encroachment problem for you.   

4. Creativity: Creative tasks are still better off without AI intervention. This article was written without the help of AI, as you might have guessed that AI will not discriminate or disregard itself.  

5. True Understanding of Language: Although AI can grasp vocabulary from different languages, it cannot have a true understanding of language. Multilingual skills are still better off with human interventions.  

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6. Judgement: The skills of intuition and personal judgement are still human qualities that you can master. Since AI cannot get a grasp on intuition, it can make judgements. So master such tasks at which you are a pro in making decisions happen.  

7. Information Credibility: AI cannot to a reliable extend evaluate the credibility of a source of data and information. Hence, it needs human experience and expertise to identify whether the source of a given information is credible to be relied upon or not.  

8. Subjective experiences: AI has its own set of problems dealing with subjective experiences. Human are the best when asked to share their subjective experiences.  

9. Real-time Decision Making: You can rely on the human brain to make real-time decisions. But one cannot muster up the courage to rely on the decisions made by the machines.  

10.Solving Emergent Problems:  To solve emergent problems, it is best to rely on the human brain. AI can hardly prove to be of any help when it comes to solving emergent problems.  

11. Insufficient Data: If the data is insufficient or incomplete, AI will find it difficult to perform decision-making. Whereas humans can easily connect the dots and bridge the incompleteness of the data, to complete the holistic picture and solve the problem.  

12. Context: To learn, understand and interpret the context, human intelligence will always be preferred. Understanding context is beyond the purview of artificial intelligence.   

Here at Directorate of Online Education, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, we teach you not just to master technology but also stay relevant in the industry amidst the growing significance of Artificial Intelligence. To learn more, do check out our course offerings in machine learning and deep learning.  

Top careers in accounting

Accounting is one of the best career choices for those who have a way with numbers. If you too have a knack for doing calculations in a jiffy, accounting is one of the ideal career paths to pursue. Confused though about where to work after completing your graduate degree in the field? This blog looks at some of the top and high-paying accounting career options to help you make the right start to a lucrative career ahead.

Why pursue a career in accounting?

The decision to choose a career in the world of accounting comes with a host of benefits to students. Some of the top ones are listed below:

  • Diverse industry roles: This is one of the prime benefits of entering a career in accounting. You get the opportunity to try your hand at different industries and varied work environments since accounting is an integral part of every organization in every industry. You can choose a sector of your choice or switch between industries to suit your changing interests and career aspirations.
  • Higher pay scales: Lucrative accounting jobs are a key attraction for several student graduates and professionals alike. Those enrolled in accounting roles are eligible to earn competitive pay scales. 
  • Steady demand: There is always going to be demand for an accountant’s role since every organization needs an accountant to handle their bookkeeping records, and manage and audit finances.
  • Self-employment prospects: Accountants are also entitled to start their own business once they secure a CPA or Certified Public Accountant license. This allows them to launch their enterprise and earn clients directly instead of working for another individual or organization.

High-paying jobs in accounting

Now that we know the various benefits of pursuing a career in accounting, let us look at some of the top-rewarding accounting job opportunities in the industry:

  • Accountant: Responsible for reporting the financial data of an organization and managing its overall expenditure
  • Tax Accountant: Responsible for making estimates and tracking tax returns of the company, preparing and filing tax reports (both quarterly and yearly), and making regular tax payments on the company’s behalf
  • Cost Accountant: Responsible for managing the costs of a company, managing expenditures, supply chains, and budgets
  • Financial Advisor: Responsible for purchase and sale of financial products, managing client’s finances, assisting clients in making informed investment decisions 
  • Accounting Manager: Responsible for reviewing a company’s financial statements, supervising accountants, preparing reports for the top management
  • Actuary: Responsible for evaluating the financial risk costs by using statistics, math, and financial theory 
  • CFO: Responsible for overall management of all financial decisions and actions of a company

Salary of Accountant in India

Depending on the level of qualification and number of years of work experience, the annual salary of an accountant is likely to vary. However, an average pay scale can be estimated in the range of INR 4 lakh – 15 lakh per annum for an accountant in India. Note that the figures are indicative only and are to be used as a reference. High-paying accounting roles might become available with career advancement. 

How to become an Accountant in India?

Students aspiring to pursue accounting career paths in the future can follow the simple steps outlined below:

  1. After completion of class 10, opt for the Commerce stream at the 10+2 level. It comprises subjects such as economics, mathematics, accountancy, and business. 
  2. After completion of class 12 or 10+2, you can pursue a Bachelor in Commerce or BCom at the undergraduate level where you can study more about corporate accounting, business communications, cost accounting, and tax laws.
  3. Choose a specialization of your choice such as auditing, management accounting, financial accounting, or tax accounting, and go ahead to gain some professional experience in the domain of your choice. You may start with an internship and then move on to a fresher or entry-level role in accounting. 
  4. You may also choose to continue your learning in the field by pursuing a Master of Commerce o MCom to gain advanced skills and knowledge in the field. 


Accounting is one of the best career choices for those with a keen interest in numbers and finance. There is always a steady demand for professionals in this domain since every organization has an accounting department. The salaries for job roles in accounting are also relatively higher and are a huge attraction for professionals aspiring to join the industry. BCom and MCom degrees provide the perfect foundation for launching a career in the field of accounting. Sikkim Manipal University offers these courses in online mode to students, offering flexibility in learning and the comfort of learning at your own time and pace.

Top jobs for MCA freshers

Master of Computer Applications, or MCA, is a study domain that has picked up demand over the last few years, thanks to the rapid IT evolution. Information Technology is ever-evolving, bringing newer technologies to the table. MCA courses equip students with the desired skills and knowledge sets, enabling them to keep up with the times and significantly contribute to their career growth. 

This explains why there is always a need for MCA graduates in India. A recent NASSCOM report anticipates a growth of 7.7% in the IT industry in India between the period ranging from 2021 to 2025.  This blog looks at some of the top entry-level MCA jobs in the country that you can consider upon graduation in the domain.

Entry-level MCA jobs

As stated earlier, MCA lays down a lucrative career path with plenty of opportunities for freshers and experienced professionals alike. Listed below are some of the top job opportunities for MCA freshers:

Expected job roleJob descriptionAvg annual salary (approx)
Web DesignerDesign a website’s layout, provide code for web pages, and run tests to check website featuresINR 20.9 lakhs per annum
Data ScientistAnalyze huge data sets and identify solutions to problems in a business organizationINR 971,043 per annum
Systems AnalystMaintain IT systems, execute new systems, and monitor their effectivenessINR 9,54,094 per annum
Database AdministratorManage & maintain databases of companiesINR 8,13,914 per annum
Software DeveloperDesign, execute, and manage software programs & appsINR 7,60,000 per annum
Software EngineerDesign, develop, and maintain computer softwareINR 7,20,521 per annum
Hardware EngineerDevelop, maintain, and test computers & their physical partsINR 5,50,393 per annum
Troubleshooter Determine, analyze, and provide solutions for issues in computer hardware, software, or apps INR 4,23,000 per annum

MCA career path

Students and other tech professionals opting for an MCA degree at the postgraduate level are highly likely to witness augmented growth in their careers. An MCA has the potential to instantly boost the chances of securing a high-paying job in the IT industry, in addition to a prestigious job title as well. MCA courses are also particularly helpful in imparting and enhancing the necessary technical skills that professionals in the tech industry require for growth in the IT sector.

Skills required for MCA freshers

Students graduating with an MCA degree and applying for fresher jobs after MCA are generally expected to possess the following essential skills by companies:

  • Knowledge of Database Management Systems such as Oracle and SQL
  • Software architecture and design
  • Critical thinking and problem-solving
  • Time management skills
  • Agile methodologies like Kanban and Scrum

Companies hiring MCA graduates

Now that we are well aware of the skills required to apply for MCA graduate career options, let us look at the top companies that are likely to hire these professionals after completion of their course:

  • Capgemini
  • Wipro Technologies
  • HCL
  • IBM Global Services
  • Accenture
  • Computer Sciences Corporation
  • Hewlett-Packard
  • Cognizant Technology Solutions
  • Tata Consultancy Services
  • Tech Mahindra 


A degree in MCA can be particularly helpful for finding rewarding career prospects after graduation. The blog above highlighted a few top opportunities for MCA fresher employment and there are many more to explore, considering the steadily increasing demand for the course in the IT sector. 

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) offers online MCA courses to students in fully online mode on the Online Manipal University platform. The program is designed to equip students with the desired skills to take up diverse roles in varied industries.

Who should pursue online MCA 

In today’s digitally driven world, the demand for skilled professionals in the field of information technology (IT) continues to soar. More and more organizations are nowadays seeking expertise in areas such as data analysis, cyber security, software development, and IT networking. At the forefront of meeting all these needs are graduates in Master of Computer Applications (MCA). 

Through rigorous coursework and hands-on experience, MCA graduates gain in-depth technical knowledge and programming skills essential for designing, developing, and maintaining complex software systems and IT infrastructure. The online course imparts both theoretical and practical knowledge to the students making them qualified to take prime job roles in the rapidly evolving industries.

Let us together understand in-depth about online MCA suitability and the benefits of pursuing this online degree program.

What is an online MCA? 

An online Master of Computer Applications (MCA) degree course is a flexible and more convenient version of the traditional on-campus degree program. It is all about interactive assignments, virtual lectures, and online resources to impart comprehensive knowledge in the areas of software development, networking, database management, and information technology to the students.

The main objective of this online PG course is to allow students to balance their studies with work and other commitments. During the online MCA course, individuals get the opportunity to collaborate, network, and interact with students in a globalized learning environment, which paves a stepping stone for them to become future-ready. 

Who should pursue online MCA? 

Curious to know what are the benefits of online MCA for working professionals? Well, this online degree program is not just apt for working professionals, but others too. Offering oodles of flexibility and accessibility, an online Master of Computer Applications course suits various needs and aspirations. Listed below are the people who should consider pursuing an online MCA from a top university, for instance, Sikkim Manipal University (SMU):

  • Graduates looking to explore a career in computer applications: Recent graduates with a bachelor’s degree in computer science are the first ones to benefit from an online Master of Computer Applications course to deepen their understanding of computer applications, and programming languages. This way they can prepare themselves for diverse career paths within the IT sector.
  • Individuals looking to explore a career in tech: If you are from a non-computer science background and interested in making a switch to the tech world; then an online Master of Computer Applications course will serve the purpose. This online course will help you gain the necessary knowledge and skills to embark on a rewarding career in technology.
  • Individuals who want to upskill: Likewise, people seeking to upskill and expand their expertise in specific areas related to computer science or software development can choose to enroll in an online MCA course. This degree program will surely help them to stay competitive in the job market.
  • Individuals who want to enhance programming skills: For those passionate about programming and software development, an online MCA course offers the chance to hone their skills. Pursuing an online MCA degree program under the guidance of experienced instructors from renowned universities like SMU will help them enhance their overall programming skills.
  • Individuals who want to pursue a flexible master’s degree: Busy professionals, parents or people with other personal or professional commitments who require flexibility in their education can benefit from the convenience of an online Master of Computer Applications course. They can easily study at their own pace and balance work, life, and education. 

Eligibility for online MCA 

The eligibility criteria for getting admission to an online MCA course may differ from university to university. However, in general, the common online MCA eligibility criteria is given below:

  • Candidate must have a bachelor’s degree in computer science, computer applications or a similar discipline within a minimum of 50%
  • Candidates must have studied mathematics as one of the main subjects in Class 12th from a recognized board

Admission process for online MCA

Getting admission to an online MCA course in top universities like Sikkim Manipal University via the Online Manipal platform is no rocket science. It is a pretty simple affair that eligible candidates can do sitting remotely from any location in these easy-to-follow steps:

Step 1: Register  on the official website of the preferred institution or university

Step 2: Fill in the required information such as contact details, academic details, and personal details 

Step 3: Complete the application form by uploading the required documents

Step 4: Verify the details filled in the form and then submit it along with the fee for the online MCA course

If the above steps are fulfilled properly, the university or institute will contact the candidate after the verification procedure via a confirmation email.

High-paying careers after MCA 

One of the major benefits of an MCA for an individual is that one gets to open a gateway of bright career opportunities with this renowned degree in hand. MCA graduates are in high demand, commanding competitive salaries and shaping the future of technology-driven enterprises all across the globe.

The table below will acquaint you with the best job opportunities for online MCA for remote learners:

Job ProfileRole and ResponsibilityApproximate Salary (per annum)
IT ArchitectResponsible for designing and implementing complex systems and networks aligned with the organization’s goalsINR 2,561,820 per annum
Database EngineerResponsible for designing and maintaining the databases to support an organization’s data needsINR 1,500,000 per annum
System AnalystResponsible for analyzing an organization’s IT systems and improving its efficiencyINR 1,400,000 per annum 
Data ScientistResponsible for collecting and identifying patterns and trends in data from various sources to solve business problemsINR 971,043 per annum
Software DeveloperResponsible for designing, developing, and maintaining software applications to meet the client’s requirementsINR 7,60,000 per annum

Where to pursue an online MCA

Now that you know about the benefits and who should pursue an online MCA course, aren’t you eager to know where to pursue this course for best results and skill upgradation? Apply for admission to an online Master of Computer Applications (MCA) course at Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) via the Online Manipal platform. According to the NIRF, SMU is counted among India’s top 100-150 universities and as per the IIRF, it holds the 1st rank as top university in Northeastern India in 2023. Moreover, SMU lets you enjoy the prestigious 70-year-old Manipal alumni status with its online MCA course. 

Here are some top reasons to choose Sikkim Manipal University for an online MCA course:

  1. UGC-entitled NAAC A+ accredited degrees: Going for an online MCA course from SMU means getting rewarded with UGC-entitled NAAC A+ accredited degrees that are globally recognized and accepted by employers worldwide. 
  1. Experienced and trained faculty: The second main benefit of choosing Sikkim Manipal University for an online MCA course is the experienced faculty sharing their vast experience and knowledge with students.
  1. Global classroom for diverse exposure: The global classrooms of this prestigious university help students connect with enthusiastic students from all over the world online. This diverse exposure allows them to interact, collaborate, and network with people from different geographical locations and cultures. 
  1. Advanced technical knowledge: SMU online MCA students enjoy access to the latest technologies like the Learning Management System (LMS), which can help them become digitally literate to make a mark in a variety of prime job roles in the ongoing digital era. 
  1. Placement assistance: This top university of Northeast India doesn’t just impart knowledge on the course, but also helps students with exceptional placement assistance. The faculty here prepares students for interviews through mock interviews, skill assessments, and virtual placement drives. 
  1. Attractive scholarships: Not to forget Sikkim Manipal University offers attractive scholarships to students belonging to 5 types of categories. Candidates from Sikkim and Northeast India, Divyang or disabled students, meritorious students, defense personnel, and alumni of Sikkim Manipal  University stand a chance to get scholarships pursuing an online course from this university. 
  1. Affordable fee with no-cost EMI: Last but not least, one of the best reasons for anyone to enrol for an online MCA in SMU is because of its affordable fee structure with no-cost EMI. It saves students from taking stress on financing their studies and allows them to rather focus on their education and skill upgradation during the course. 


To sum up, pursuing an online Master of Computer Applications (MCA) offers a compelling pathway to success. Whether you are a working professional seeking to enhance your technical skills, a recent graduate looking to specialize in computer science, or simply driven by a passion for technology; an online MCA course is apt for you. Choose to study online MCA from Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) from the Online Manipal platform. Interactive online learning modules, expert faculty, 100% placement assistance, NAAC A+ accredited UGC-entitled degree, glorious Manipal status, robust alumni network, and affordable fees, are some of the key benefits to reap by choosing SMU for an online MCA course.

Detailed guide: Enterprise Resource Planning

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an integrated software system developed to integrate and manage business processes across an organization. It works by integrating various functions, including finance, accounting, human resources, supply chain management, and customer relationship management, into a single centralized database.

ERP systems provide a smooth data transmission and real-time overview of the operations within departments. ERP solutions harmonize data silos by promoting collaboration and efficiency, optimizing processes and resource allocation, and eliminating redundancies.

This blog examines the essence of enterprise resource planning overview and professional tips to optimize these systems in a modern business environment.

Understanding ERP Systems: Fundamentals and Benefits

At the heart of ERP is centralized data management, referred to as the consolidation of data collected by different departments into a single database.  Process automation is another major area of ERP systems. Through their ability to automate recurring tasks and workflows, ERP tools reduce the number of manual interventions, eliminate errors, and boost overall process efficiency.

The most important advantage of ERP software is its efficiency. It substitutes manual data entry with centralized information, automates the process, and enables departments to work together. Thus, by combining multiple business functions of an organization, ERP solutions enable a real-time view of operations. Therefore, organizations can detect bottlenecks, optimize resource distribution, and react appropriately to changing market environments.

Data accuracy is another invaluable advantage of ERP systems. The fact that there is only one data source automatically eliminates data inconsistencies and repetitions, ensuring decision-makers have up-to-date and reliable information.

Walmart, one of the largest global retailers, has adopted an ERP system to simplify its supply chain monitoring using real-time inventory level control, distribution optimization, and improved customer service.

Also read: Best Online Courses to Start/Advance Your Career in Marketing

ERP Components and Modules

ERP systems are monolithic solutions that cover all the functional areas and modules necessary for an enterprise to accomplish its main business processes. These include the following:

  • Financial Management: The module deals with the organization’s financial operation, including the general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, fixed asset management, and financial reporting. It enables up-to-date and reactive financial data monitoring, thus ensuring the creation of budgets, forecasting, and compliance with accounting standards.
  • Human Resources (HR): The HR module simplifies personnel management processes such as recruitment, payroll, benefits administration, performance evaluation, and employee training. It also helps organizations manage employees’ databases, track time and attendance, and ensure that labor laws and regulations are followed.
  • Manufacturing: The manufacturing module is a must for production businesses. It consists of product design, BOM management, production planning and scheduling, quality control, and maintenance management.

The real benefit of the ERP is in the integration of these components. Through data sharing, organizations can achieve consistency and avoid duplication. As an example, when a sales order is entered into the CRM module, the data is automatically transferred to the production and supply chain modules that spring into action. This integration enables a holistic view and synchronization of functions and also increases operational efficiency.

ERP Implementation Process

Implementing an ERP system involves several key steps, each crucial for ensuring a successful deployment. Here’s an outline of the ERP implementation process:

Planning PhaseCreate a project team with employees/experts from various functioning departments.
Selection PhaseEvaluate vendors based on criteria such as functionality, scalability, industry fit, support, and cost.
Requirements AnalysisConduct interviews, workshops, and surveys to understand user needs.
Customization and ConfigurationConfigure modules, workflows, and user interfaces based on requirements.
Deployment PhaseConduct user training sessions to train employees on ERP and welcome questions.

Understanding and documenting detailed requirements are essential for ensuring that the ERP system meets the organization’s needs. Without a thorough analysis, implementing a system that doesn’t address critical business processes or lacks essential features is risky.

Moreover, involving stakeholders throughout the implementation process ensures their buy-in and helps address their concerns and preferences. Engaged stakeholders provide valuable input during requirements gathering, testing, and training phases, increasing the likelihood of successful adoption.

Choosing the Right ERP System

Selecting the right ERP system for your organization is a critical decision that requires careful consideration of various factors. Here’s the ERP software selection guide:

ScalabilityConsider your long-term business goals and whether the ERP system can accommodate increasing users, transactions, and business complexities.
Industry-Specific RequirementsIndustry-specific ERP systems often come with pre-configured modules and functionalities tailored to specific verticals, reducing the need for extensive customization.
Budget ConstraintsConsider both upfront costs and long-term total cost of ownership (TCO). Evaluate options for on-premises, cloud-based, or hybrid deployment models based on your budget constraints.

Here are some more tips:

  • Assess the ERP system’s core functionalities and features against your organization’s requirements. Look for a comprehensive suite of modules covering areas such as finance, supply chain management, manufacturing, human resources, and customer relationship management (CRM).
  • Evaluate the vendor’s customer support offerings, including implementation services, training programs, ongoing technical support, and software updates. 
  • Request demonstrations from shortlisted ERP vendors to see their systems in action. Pay attention to ease of use, user interface, system performance, and alignment with your requirements.
  • Conduct pilot tests or proof-of-concept projects to evaluate the ERP system’s suitability for your organization’s needs. Involve key stakeholders and end-users in the testing process to gather feedback.

Customization and configuration

ERP systems typically consist of various modules (e.g., finance, HR, inventory). Customization allows organizations to modify or extend these modules to align with unique business processes and requirements.

Customizing workflows enables organizations to streamline processes and automate tasks specific to their operations. This includes defining approval hierarchies, triggers for automated actions, and notifications.

Prioritize customization needs based on business impact and criticality. Focus on customizations that provide significant value and differentiate your organization without compromising system stability.

To configure the new system, define user roles and permissions based on job functions and responsibilities. Assign appropriate access levels to modules, features, and data within the ERP system to ensure data security and compliance.

Training and change management

Proper training ensures that end-users understand how to use the ERP system effectively, reducing resistance to change and increasing productivity. Well-trained users are more likely to embrace the new system and contribute to its success.

Managing organizational change involves preparing employees for the transition to the new ERP system, addressing resistance, and fostering a culture of continuous improvement. Change management strategies help mitigate disruptions and maximize the system’s benefits.

  • Conduct a thorough assessment of training needs by identifying user roles, skill levels, and specific training requirements.
  • Utilize a combination of instructor-led training, e-learning modules, hands-on workshops, and job aids.
  • Develop a comprehensive communication plan to keep stakeholders informed throughout the implementation process.
  • Appoint change champions to foster support.
  • Encourage open communication and address any issues or challenges promptly.

ERP Utilization and Optimization

Follow these tips to ensure the ERP system runs smoothly and for a long time:

  • Implement robust data governance practices to ensure data quality, integrity, and security within the ERP system.
  • Define data standards, policies, and procedures for data entry, validation, and maintenance.
  • Regularly maintain and update the ERP system to address bugs, security vulnerabilities, and performance issues.
  • Schedule routine maintenance tasks such as backups, patches, and upgrades to keep the system running smoothly.

Also read: Differences between upskilling and reskilling – Online Manipal

Cloud-based ERP solutions are now becoming popular. They offer scalability, flexibility, and accessibility, enabling organizations to deploy and manage ERP systems more efficiently. Moreover, AI technologies such as machine learning and natural language processing are increasingly integrated into ERP systems to automate repetitive tasks, improve decision-making, and enhance user experiences.

Why are online degrees best done with MAHE?

MAHE’s online degrees offer unparalleled quality and flexibility, ensuring a seamless learning experience for students worldwide. With cutting-edge technology, experienced faculty, and an industry-aligned curriculum, MAHE’s online programs empower learners to excel in their chosen fields.

Specifically focusing on ERP, MAHE provides specialized courses and degrees tailored to meet the demands of the modern workforce. It equips students with essential skills and knowledge for successful ERP implementation and management.


Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have become indispensable for modern businesses, enabling seamless integration, process optimization, and data-driven decision-making. This blog has explored the fundamentals of ERP, ERP benefits and challenges, and best practices. Therefore, by leveraging the power of ERP solutions, organizations can achieve operational excellence and enhance competitiveness.

Why BBA graduates should pursue an MBA in International Business

With globalization proceeding to reshape the trade scene, the request for experts prepared with both foundational commerce information and an understanding of universal markets is on the rise. For graduates holding a Bachelor’s in Business Administration (BBA), seeking a Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) with a specialization in International Business offers a vital pathway toward career progression and worldwide opportunities.

An MBA in International Business enhances the core competencies acquired during a BBA program, offering specialized coursework focused on global strategy, cross-cultural management, international trade, and multinational finance. By diving into these areas, graduates pick up the aptitudes and points of view fundamental to exploring the complexities of conducting trade on a worldwide scale. Overall, the benefits of an MBA in International Business after completing a BBA are various, giving graduates a competitive edge in today’s worldwide marketplace. Let’s explore!

Benefits of doing an MBA in International Business after BBA

This vital decision offers various advantages, moving graduates toward quickened career development and success in today’s globalized economy.

Benefits of an MBA in International Business include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Worldwide Point of view: An MBA in International Business prepares graduates with a wide understanding of worldwide markets, empowering them to explore differing social, financial, and political scenes easily.
  • Cross-Cultural Competence: Through coursework and experiential learning, students gain the social insights vital to communicating and collaborating viably across borders, which are fundamental aptitudes in today’s interconnected world.
  • Improved Administration Aptitudes: The program sharpens students’ leadership skills by challenging them to unravel complex issues in different settings. It prepares them for high-level administrative roles in multinational corporations. Students learn to lead multicultural teams and excel at projects.
  • Expanding Career Horizons: Engaging with peers and faculty members from diverse backgrounds fosters a rich and varied professional network, unlocking pathways to global career opportunities and collaborations.
  • Specialized Expertise: Specialized courses in the marketing and strategy of international business give graduates the mastery required to address the interesting challenges of conducting trade on a global scale.
  • Accessing the Global Job Market: With an MBA in International Business, graduates gain access to a broad range of career opportunities spanning multinational corporations, consulting firms, international organizations, and global entrepreneurial ventures.
  • Higher Earning Potential: The specialized information and abilities procured through an MBA in International Business translate into higher earning potential, with pay rates for experts regularly outperforming those of their counterparts in similar roles.

Therefore, career growth with an MBA in International Business after completing a BBA offers many avenues for development and success.

Career growth with an MBA in International Business

MBA specialization for BBA graduates in International Business offers a critical boost to career development, giving them specialized abilities and information essential for victory in worldwide markets. Here’s how seeking this specialization can drive students along their career trajectory:

  • Administration Openings: Equipped with a solid establishment, MBA graduates with a specialization in International Business are well-positioned to accept authority in multinational organizations. An example could be the International Business Improvement Director position, where they initiate vital activities to grow the company’s presence in foreign markets.
  • Specialized Job Roles: Seeking an MBA in International Business opens avenues for a wide range of specialized job roles. Graduates may seek careers as Export/Import Officers or International Finance Managers, capable of directing the coordination, budgeting, and administrative compliance of worldwide exchange operations. Students may also look into openings as Universal Fund Directors, overseeing money-related risks and optimizing speculations over different monetary forms and markets.
  • Entrepreneurial Ventures: Armed with a thorough comprehension of global markets and a network of international contacts cultivated during their MBA program, graduates may opt to embark on entrepreneurial ventures with a global focus. Whether launching a startup targeting international markets or expanding an existing business globally, their specialized skill set equips them to navigate the hurdles and seize the opportunities of global entrepreneurship.

In essence, seeking an MBA specialization in International Business serves as a key pathway for BBA graduates to develop their careers, seeking openings for leadership, specialization, and entrepreneurial success in global business.

Opportunities to work abroad with an MBA in International Business

Opportunities with an MBA abroad offer graduates an assorted cluster of career paths with multinational enterprises (MNCs) over different businesses. Here are 7-8 cases of work/career openings, along with related job roles and cases of MNCs, along with pay:

Worldwide Supply Chain Manager

  • Job Role: A supply chain manager oversees all phases of a company’s supply chain process, starting from procurement of raw materials to manufacturing. Responsibilities include sourcing products, negotiating contracts, controlling manufacturing processes, planning a logistical strategy, overseeing storage and distribution, tracking goods, managing forecasts, and much more.
  • An MNC hiring for this role: Walmart
  • Pay: ₹4.08 lakhs per year (average base salary)

Universal Exchange Compliance Specialist

  • Job Role: A compliance specialist guarantees that a company adheres to laws and regulations by working with legal departments, training staff, spotting issues, and communicating with government agencies. The specialist also ensures adherence to standard exchange protocols and manages customs procedures for import/export operations.
  • An MNC hiring for this role: Amazon
  • Pay: ₹7.3 lakhs per year (average base salary)

Universal Human Assets Manager

  • Job Role: A human assets manager plays an important role within a company’s HR department. This person is responsible for staff recruitment, enacting policies, managing payroll, administering benefits, handling employee relations, conducting training, overseeing performance evaluations, ensuring legal adherence, and formulating strategic plans.
  • An MNC hiring for this role: Google
  • Pay: ₹4.7 lakhs per year (average base salary)

Market Research Analyst

  • Job Role: Market research analysts collect information from customers, rivals, and the industry to guide key decisions. They examine patterns, necessitating robust analytical, communication, and creative abilities. They conduct advertisements and disrupt opportunities and challenges in remote markets.
  • An MNC hiring for this role: Coca-Cola
  • Pay: ₹ 5.6 lakhs per year (average base salary)

Worldwide Operations Manager

  • Job Role: Playing a vital part in international operations, the global operations manager oversees procedures to ensure efficient product distribution in various markets. Duties entail creating strategies, managing supply chains, leading teams, negotiating with vendors, ensuring quality control, analyzing trends, ensuring compliance, and planning for changes.
  • An MNC hiring for this role: Toyota
  • Pay: ₹ 20.5 lakhs per year (average base salary)

Universal Finance Analyst

  • Job Role: Financial analysts examine financial information from various sources, develop models using mathematical methods, assess investment alternatives, evaluate financial results, predict future outcomes, produce reports, and oversee investment portfolios. They also analyze budgetary information from diverse nations and monetary standards to back key decision-making.
  • An MNC hiring for this role: Goldman Sachs
  • Pay: ₹6.6 lakhs per year (average base salary)

Worldwide Business Development Director

  • Job Role: Business development directors seek openings for trade development and tapping into underutilized universal markets. They are also responsible for creating and executing global trade strategies, enforcing adherence, boosting financial expansion, working with involved parties/stakeholders, and more.
  • An MNC hiring for this role: Apple
  • Pay: ₹44.2 lakhs per year (average base salary)

Start your career with Online Manipal

Begin your career with Online Manipal, where opportunities for proficient development and progression abound. International MBA advantages with Manipal University Jaipur (MUJ) stand out, especially for working experts looking to upskill and extend their career horizons.

MUJ’s online MBA program is designed for today’s global market, focusing on global trade. It’s flexible for working professionals, allowing them to study without pausing their careers while gaining valuable skills in international business. Despite being online, students still benefit from networking opportunities and hands-on learning experiences.

By selecting MUJ’s online MBA program with International Business as an elective, working professionals can set out on a journey of individual and proficient development. Whether seeking career progression, entering unused markets, or leading multinational groups, this program gives you the tools and opportunities required to succeed in today’s energetic worldwide trade environment.


In conclusion, the several benefits of an MBA in International Business make the program worthy for BBA graduates. The master’s program’s knowledge will only add to your existing business knowledge and provide you with specialized niche information about global markets. By leveraging the advantages of this specialized education program, people can position themselves as energetic and competitive candidates in the global market. Ans also be prepared to handle the challenges and capitalize on the opportunities of conducting commerce on a worldwide scale.

Key Takeaways:

  • When compared to BBA graduates in comparable professions, an MBA in International Business can result in greater wages.
  • This specialization opens up a greater variety of jobs in international organizations, consulting firms, and multinational corporations.

From Straps to Success: The Art of Bootstrapping Your Business 

“Imagine starting a business with nothing but a dream and a shoestring budget. Welcome to the world of bootstrapping, where entrepreneurs turn scarcity into success through sheer determination and resourcefulness.” 

Let’s unveil Bootstrapping:  

Bootstrapping is a strategic choice for entrepreneurs seeking independence, control, and agility in building their businesses. By self-funding and avoiding external investors, founders retain control over their vision and decision-making processes. This approach fosters financial discipline, as entrepreneurs must operate on a lean budget and prioritize revenue generation from the outset. Bootstrapped ventures focus on creating value for customers, building a strong foundation, and avoiding debt and dilution of ownership. This allows founders to grow organically, adapt quickly to market changes, and establish a loyal customer base without the pressure to scale rapidly. While bootstrapping presents challenges such as limited resources and lack of external validation, it offers long-term benefits including resilience and sustainability. Overall, bootstrapping empowers entrepreneurs to build successful businesses on their own terms, leveraging creativity, resourcefulness, and determination to achieve their goals. 

Bootstrapped Brilliance:  

  • Instamojo, founded by Sampad Swain, Aditya Sengupta, and Akash Gehani in 2012, emerged as a pivotal player in India’s fintech sector. Their online payment solutions for MSMEs garnered traction, showcasing the potential of bootstrapping in driving innovation. 
  • Shiprocket, launched by Saahil Goel and Gautam Kapoor in 2017, revolutionized logistics and supply chain management for small and medium-sized businesses. By leveraging technology, Shiprocket facilitated affordable and efficient shipping solutions, showcasing the efficacy of bootstrapped ventures in addressing market needs. 
  • PharmEasy, founded by Dharmil Sheth and Dhaval Shah in 2015, disrupted India’s healthcare sector with its digital platform for the doorstep delivery of medicines and diagnostic services. Despite fierce competition, PharmEasy witnessed exponential growth, underscoring the resilience of bootstrapped startups in navigating challenging markets. 
  • Razorpay, established by Harshil Mathur and Shashank Kumar in 2014, emerged as a frontrunner in India’s fintech space with its comprehensive payment solutions. By prioritizing customer-centricity and innovation, Razorpay gained widespread adoption, illustrating the potential of bootstrapping to drive success in dynamic industries. 
  • Unacademy, founded by Gaurav Munjal, Roman Saini, and Hemesh Singh in 2015, democratized education with its online learning platform. Through a commitment to accessibility and quality content, Unacademy garnered a massive user base, showcasing the transformative power of bootstrapped ventures in shaping India’s educational landscape. These examples underscore the ingenuity and resilience of Indian entrepreneurs in building successful businesses through bootstrapping. 

Bootstrapped businesses were the foundation of many of the prosperous corporations that exist today. A few renowned examples are: – 

  • Dell Computers 
  • Apple  
  • Clorox  
  • Coca Cola  
  • Hewlett-Packard  
  • Microsoft  
  • Oracle  
  • eBay  
  • Cisco Systems  
  • SAP (SAP) 

The successful bootstrapped enterprises of Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Michael Dell, and Richard Branson are examples of companies that undoubtedly have entrepreneurs behind the scenes. 

Crafting Your Bootstrapping Plan 

Bootstrapping, the art of launching and growing a business without external funding, employs a variety of resourceful methods: 

  1. Self-Funding: Founders invest personal savings, utilize credit cards, or obtain loans to finance initial operations, ensuring complete control over their ventures. 
  2. Revenue Reinvestment: Early profits are reinvested into the business for further growth, allowing sustainable development without reliance on external capital. 
  3. Expense Minimization: Bootstrapped entrepreneurs adopt frugal practices, such as working from home and negotiating supplier deals, to minimize costs and conserve resources. 
  4. Sweat Equity: Team members contribute skills and time in exchange for equity, enabling talent acquisition without significant upfront costs. 
  5. Customer Funding: Pre-selling products or services validates market demand while generating revenue to fund development, reducing the risk of product failure. 
  6. Bartering and Trade: Entrepreneurs leverage their resources to barter goods and services with other businesses, acquiring assets and expertise without cash. 
  7. Partnerships and Collaborations: Forming alliances with complementary companies allows resource sharing and market expansion without additional costs. 
  8. Grants and Awards: Seeking non-dilutive funding through grants, awards, and competitions supports specific expenses or accelerates growth without sacrificing equity. 

Building from Within: 

Launching your startup through bootstrapping demands a blend of bravery, steadfastness, and ingenuity. A meticulously crafted bootstrapping plan can help establish a convincing proof of concept, which serves as the foundation for either a sustainable and profitable enterprise or as a stepping stone towards securing external funding in the future. The pivotal approach lies in commencing with modest steps, harboring grand ambitions, and unwaveringly directing efforts toward delivering tangible benefits to your clientele.

Gain insight and more clarity about bootstrapping by enrolling yourself in B. Com/ M.Com courses that will help you to create the right understanding of the do’s and don’ts of bootstrapping. Centre of Distance and Online Education, Manipal University Jaipur offers UGC entitled Online B. Com and online M.Com courses for all those who are interested in learning accounting and finance. Candidates enrolled in Manipal University Jaipur’s online Commerce program can take advantage of the program’s flexible schedule, excellent faculty, and extensive course material. 

How to become a Public Administrator?

Strive to create a positive change for the common good of society? A Public Administrator profile awaits you. As the name suggests, the role involves administering or overseeing the functions of public service departments, agencies, and also non-profit organizations at 3 levels of the Indian government. These include the federal or central government level, the state level, and the local level. Public Administrators are managers of public services that assist the common public. Considering the significance of this role in everyday society affairs, there are plenty of lucrative job opportunities in the public sector. This blog details the exact steps for the Public Administrator career path. 

What is a Public Administrator?

Before proceeding with the steps to become a Public Administrator, here’s a brief about the role itself. A Public Administrator oversees the execution of various public policies, programs, and services of the government at the central, state, and local levels. They are responsible for designing and managing the effective implementation of public policies by elected government officials and local community leaders.

How to become a Public Administrator?

If you too are interested in serving the community at large for the common good of society and the role of a Public Administrator excites you, here’s your chance to become one. Detailed below are the exact Public Administration qualifications required for the role.

In India, the minimum educational qualification required for the role of a Public Administrator is a Bachelor’s degree at the undergraduate level. However, you don’t need to hold a degree in the domain of public administration or political science. You can get a Bachelor’s in any area of study and still pursue Public Administration as a career path.

Upon completion of your Bachelor’s, you may apply for an internship program, either at your university, Ministry of Home Affairs, or an NGO, to gain some professional experience in Public Administration. Furthermore, you may choose to pursue a Master of Arts (MA) in Public Administration at the postgraduate level, to earn an advanced degree in the domain. 

Skills needed for Public Administrator

Apart from the formal qualifications required to become a Public Administrator, gaining a few relevant skills in the area can also be rather helpful. Some of the top skills needed to pursue a career in Public Administration include:

  • Problem-solving abilities to identify the development areas in society and work toward finding effective solutions for them, for the larger benefit of the community
  • Effective time management to ensure that all policies and programs are designed, developed, and executed within the allotted time
  • Leadership skills to be able to guide, inspire, and motivate individuals and organizations alike to work towards the achievement of common goals 

Roles & responsibilities of Public Administrator

As a Public Administrator, you would be required to perform some of the following important duties:

  • Managing the budget allocated by the government (federal, state, or local) towards the development of the city
  • Overseeing the implementation of government programs and services 
  • Analyzing and reviewing government policies to determine their effectiveness for the public at large
  • Recruiting and training employees in government bodies
  • Creating and designing government programs and policies that would be for the overall good of the community

Public Administrator salary in India

A Public Administrator is expected to earn an average salary of approximately INR 5 lakh – 7 lakh per annum. Note that the figures are indicative only and likely to vary from one person to another in different locations.

Some of the popular Public Administrator job roles that you can consider applying for are shared in the table below along with their average corresponding salaries per annum.

Expected job roleAnnual salary (approx)
Administrative OfficerINR 10,15,668 per annum
Policy AnalystINR 9,11,345 per annum
Social WorkerINR 8 lakh per annum
Public Relations SpecialistINR 5,91,795 per annum
Urban PlannerINR 5.4 lakh per annum


The position of a Public Administrator is one of the few prestigious roles in the Indian government. Considering the increasing needs of Indian society, there is always a steady demand for this job profile in the country. Heading in the right direction early on can help you achieve your goal and assume Public Administrator responsibilities with ease.

After completing your Bachelor’s in any field, you may pursue an MA in Political Science, which can help you gain the desired advanced skills and knowledge required for the role. Sikkim Manipal University offers MA in Political Science courses in 100% online mode to students across India. This program is offered on the Online Manipal platform and offers students the right knowledge and tools that they need to proceed with their careers in the Public Administration domain. 

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