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The 4 A model of Marketing

Blog Date
August 2,

In today’s digital world, marketing has become more challenging than ever. Launching a new product with the help of advertisements and PR events is not enough because now people are smarter about what they buy and why. Today’s customers have a high level of awareness about the products they purchase and expect companies to meet their standard of transparency at all times.

To market your product effectively, you need an integrated approach that considers the various factors influencing its success. After all, launching a campaign without a plan rarely leads to the desired results. That’s why one of the most effective marketing strategies is using the 4 A model: Acceptability, Affordability, Accessibility, and Awareness.

The 4 A marketing model was developed by Professor Jagdish Sheth and Dr Rajendra Sisodia. It was developed as an addition to the 4 P model of marketing that provides a consumer perspective about the products in question.

Candidates who are looking to start a career in marketing need to be well-versed with all marketing concepts like 7 P’s of marketing and 4C’s of marketing mix. An MBA in marketing course covers all aspects of marketing and is a great way to start or advance your career in marketing.

Check out: MBA marketing course guide

What are the 4 A’s of marketing?

The 4A’s of marketing also referred to as rural marketing mix is a framework that highlights four essential elements that businesses and marketing professionals should consider to achieve success in their marketing efforts. They are:

Acceptability: This refers to understanding and meeting the needs and preferences of the target market. To succeed, a product or service must be accepted by the customers and offer unique value compared to competitors.

Affordability: Pricing plays a critical role in determining a product’s market success. It involves setting prices that are competitive and reasonable, ensuring that customers find the product or service worth the cost.

Accessibility: This involves making the product or service easily available to the target customers. Accessibility encompasses factors like distribution channels, physical availability, and online presence.

Awareness: Building awareness is crucial to let the target audience know about the product or service. Effective marketing communication and promotional strategies are essential to create brand recognition and visibility.

4 A's of marketing model

Let’s delve deep into the significance of each of the 4 A’s

Acceptability in 4 A’s of marketing

Acceptability is an essential factor when it comes to marketing your product. For your product to be successful, it must be accepted by consumers. Therefore, acceptance is a crucial factor to consider when creating a marketing strategy for your product. Several factors can impact the success of your product, including the quality of the product itself, the price of the product, and how easy your product is to use. There are two types of this aspect, which are:

Functional acceptability: Functional acceptability is the degree to which a product or service meets a consumer’s actual needs and is acceptable for them. These needs are essential to the person when making choices and decisions. Functional acceptability is very important because it can determine whether a product or service will likely succeed. For example, if a car has poor fuel efficiency, it would not be an acceptable product for most people. 

Similarly, if a company makes products with low-quality materials that do not last long and are difficult to repair, it would not be acceptable to most people. Functional acceptability also affects the willingness of consumers to pay for products. If a product is functional but not appealing, people may not value it highly enough to pay for it. It can make companies think twice about whether they should continue making that product.

Another important concept related to functional acceptability is the perceived usefulness of products or services to consumers, which refers to how well people think the product or service meets their needs. For example, a person who regularly uses an electric toothbrush might feel more comfortable paying more for a professional-grade electric toothbrush with excellent battery life than for a cheaper model that does not last as long but works just as well.

Psychological acceptability: Psychological acceptability is the extent to which a consumer perceives that a brand, product, or service is acceptable to them. It is closely related to consumers’ perception of quality. Acceptability generally refers to an opinion on whether or not a consumer would be willing to purchase something. Psychological acceptability may also refer to whether or not consumers are comfortable expressing a positive view of a particular product. 

Psychological acceptability can be affected by several factors, like a product’s form factor, size, shape, and material, which can contribute to psychological acceptance. Other factors include the brand image and perceived price. Psychological approval also depends on the situation, whether the consumer is in a social environment where the product is acceptable and useful.

Affordability in 4 A’s of marketing

Affordability means the ability to afford something with the necessary resources and money and how cost-effective a product is. There are many ways that businesses can sell their products or services, but some of the most common strategies are advertising, direct sales, and distribution. When marketing your product or service, you want to remember that the more affordable your product or service is, the better it is for your business.

Another key concept in marketing is value. Value refers to how much people are willing to pay for a particular product or service and the value it will bring to them. It can be influenced by several factors, including product quality, brand reputation, and social acceptance. It can also be affected by budget-conscious consumers who may choose lower-priced products over higher-priced options if they perceive them as offering more significant value.

Psychological affordability: Psychological affordability is the first and most important A of marketing. It refers to the idea that people are more likely to buy something if they perceive it as relatively affordable. In other words, if you price your product or service reasonably to a particular population segment, you are more likely to capture their attention.

A psychological sense of affordability can be achieved in several ways. Generally, it’s best to keep your costs low while ensuring that you provide top-quality products or services. You can also test out different pricing strategies and ensure that potential customers perceive them as reasonable.

Economic affordability: Economic affordability is essential for any business seeking to maintain a competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive market. Financial affordability encompasses interrelated elements: cost and value.

First, the cost of a product or service must be affordable to customers. If a company wants to establish a niche market position and differentiate its offering from its competitors, it must ensure its products and services are assumed to be affordable to potential customers.

Second, the value of a product or service is essential to customers. If a product or service is priced too high or doesn’t offer sufficient value in the long run, it will not generate sales.

Accessibility in 4 A’s of marketing

Accessibility is the idea of making your product or service easily accessible to everyone. You want to ensure that everyone can get your product or service and have a good experience with it. It’s about being open to everyone, no matter their social background.

You can think of accessibility as two things: how easy it is for people to get to your products and how easy it is for them to use the product. If you make it easy for people to find and reach you, they are more likely to buy from you. Accessibility means different things in different contexts, but it usually means ensuring everyone has equal access to your product or service.

Customer convenience: When it comes to marketing, accessibility is vital. Convenience is the number one factor that matters for consumers today. That’s why brands need to ensure their offerings are easy to get and use – whether that means offering 24/7 customer service or making certain products widely available at stores and online.

To appeal to a broader audience, look for ways to make your offerings more accessible. For example, you can make your product more widely available by partnering with retailers or providing free shipping options. You can also encourage customers to try your products by offering samples or gift cards.

Accessibility also matters when it comes to marketing yourself. It can be challenging to reach new customers when your business is based in a small town or online, but there are ways you can make it easier for people to find you and get in touch with you. You can create an email list, post on social media, and even use mobile apps that make it easier for people to connect with you.

Customer availability: 4A’s of marketing is about understanding who your customers are and what motivates them to buy. The best way to understand your customer is to ask them. An excellent way to start is by asking customers what they like and dislike about the product or service you are selling and incorporating their feedback. It will give you a clear idea of their value and what may keep them from buying your services. Knowing these two things will allow you to tailor your offering to meet their needs better. For example, if they don’t like waiting, you might ensure that you have faster shipping options. You can offer both if they value convenience but also enjoy low prices. By doing so, you’ll be able to reach more customers and increase sales.

Awareness in 4 A’s of marketing

Awareness is the first step in any marketing campaign, and it’s the process of creating attention and interest in a product, service or idea.

Awareness is essential because it helps build confidence among potential customers. If people are aware of your business, they are more likely to trust and purchase from you. Awareness can be achieved in many ways. You can advertise your business online, through social media, in-person events, etc. You can also build a loyal customer base by offering great products and services at affordable prices.

Regardless of creating awareness for your business, you should always aim to improve upon it over time. It will allow you to build a strong brand identity for your organization and increase sales over time.

Product knowledge: Product knowledge is the first step in the product development process, and it involves understanding what your customer wants and needs. Product knowledge helps companies understand customer demographics, motivations, and buying patterns, and it also helps them improve their products and services.

One way to build product knowledge is by talking to potential customers. Companies can also use surveys and other research methods to gain insight into their customers’ needs by listening to user feedback and observing sales trends.

Product knowledge is essential for a company’s growth strategy and revenue. By knowing what customers want, companies are better able to create innovative products that meet their needs while also generating revenue. Knowing what customers want can also help companies identify new ways to reach customers or increase sales of existing products and services.

Brand awareness: It is the first step in building a successful marketing campaign. It is essentially the number of people who know about your products or services. If people don’t know about your business, they can’t become your potential customers.

To build brand awareness, you should do three things: tell people about your company, tell them about your product or service, and tell them why it’s good.

The main goal of any marketing campaign is to get potential customers to notice your business and want to buy from you. To do that, you need to tell people about your business and what you sell online and offline, and you should also tell them why they should buy from you.

Most importantly, be yourself when you talk about your business. People will not trust you if your brand approach seems fake or if you try too hard to impress them with fancy wording and slick presentation.

Also read: What are the 7 Ps of marketing

Some examples of four A’s of marketing


Example 1: A restaurant offering a diverse menu that caters to different dietary preferences, making it acceptable to a wider range of customers, including vegetarians, vegans, and meat-eaters.
Example 2: A smartphone brand regularly conducting customer surveys and incorporating feedback to improve its product features, ensuring greater acceptability among tech-savvy consumers.


Example 1: An online streaming service providing various subscription options, including a basic plan with lower pricing and fewer features, catering to budget-conscious customers.
Example 2: A budget airline offering discounted fares during off-peak seasons to make air travel more affordable for leisure travelers.


Example 1: A multinational retail chain strategically locating its stores in high-traffic areas, making it easily accessible to customers and increasing footfall.
Example 2: An e-commerce platform providing a user-friendly mobile app and website, ensuring customers can easily shop from anywhere using their smartphones.


Example 1: A social media campaign by a nonprofit organization, spreading awareness about a specific cause and encouraging people to support the initiative.
Example 2: A new product launch accompanied by a nationwide television commercial and online marketing campaign, generating widespread awareness among potential customers.

In each of these examples, the 4A’s of marketing play a crucial role in attracting and retaining customers, ensuring business success, and fostering brand loyalty. Acceptability, Affordability, Accessibility, and Awareness collectively contribute to building a strong market presence and connecting with the target audience effectively.

Check out: Best marketing jobs in India

Why should you know the 4A’s of marketing?

Marketing aspirants and businesses should know the 4A’s of marketing for several reasons:

Market success: Understanding and implementing the 4A’s framework can significantly improve the chances of a product or service succeeding in the market. Meeting customer needs, offering competitive pricing, ensuring availability, and creating awareness all contribute to market success.

Customer-centric approach: The 4A’s emphasize the importance of understanding the target market and catering to customer preferences. By adopting a customer-centric approach, businesses can build stronger relationships with their customers and gain their loyalty.

Competitive advantage: Implementing the 4A’s effectively can create a competitive advantage for a business. It allows them to differentiate themselves from competitors and offer unique value propositions that resonate with customers.

Effective marketing strategies: The 4A’s framework provides a comprehensive guide for developing effective marketing strategies. It ensures that marketing efforts are well-rounded, covering crucial aspects that impact the customer’s decision-making process.

Adaptability: The marketing landscape is dynamic, and customer preferences evolve over time. By following the 4A’s, businesses can be more adaptable to changing market conditions and consumer demands.

Also read: What are the 4A’s of marketing

Significance of 4 As of marketing

The 4 As of marketing is a strategic framework that helps you increase your success. Today, the 4 As of marketing have become the standard for business and marketing strategy. Some of the benefits of the model include:

Brand awareness is one of the most important benefits of the 4 A marketing model. If potential customers are not aware of a company’s products or services, they will not be able to purchase them. The 4 A model of Marketing helps to increase brand awareness by reaching out to potential customers through various channels, such as advertising, public relations, and social media. 

Lead generation is another crucial benefit of the 4 A marketing model. Leads are potential customers who have expressed an interest in a company’s products or services. Marketing helps to generate leads by providing potential customers with information about a company’s products or services. It can be done through various channels, such as online ads, landing pages, and email campaigns. 

The 4 A marketing model helps build brand loyalty by creating a positive association of consumers with a company’s products or services. It can be done through various channels, such as advertising, social media, and customer service. 

The 4 A model of marketing helps businesses improve customer satisfaction by understanding customer needs and desires and developing products or services that meet those needs. Market research, such as surveys and focus groups, can help gain this understanding. 

The model helps boost sales by creating demand for the products or services among potential customers. This demand can be generated through various channels, such as advertising, promotions, and pricing strategies.

Also read: Why choose an MBA in marketing

Sectors that can leverage the 4A’s of marketing

The 4A’s of marketing can be applied across various sectors and industries. The principles are universal and can be tailored to suit the specific needs and characteristics of each sector. Here are some sectors where the 4A’s of marketing are commonly applied:

Consumer goods: In this sector, understanding consumer preferences and demands (Acceptability) is crucial. Offering products at competitive prices (Affordability) and making them easily available in retail stores or online (Accessibility) are essential. Building brand awareness through advertising and promotions is also significant to stay competitive in the consumer goods market.

Retail: Retail businesses need to focus on understanding customer needs and providing products and services that match those needs (Acceptability). Offering competitive pricing and deals (Affordability) to attract customers and ensuring stores are conveniently located or accessible online (Accessibility) are critical. Promotional activities and loyalty programs help create awareness and retain customers.

Technology: In the technology sector, companies need to develop products and services that address specific customer pain points (Acceptability). Setting competitive pricing models (Affordability) and ensuring products are available through various channels (Accessibility) are crucial. Technology companies often invest heavily in marketing and advertising to create awareness about their innovative solutions.

Healthcare: In the healthcare sector, understanding patient needs and providing quality medical services (Acceptability) is vital. Setting transparent and reasonable pricing (Affordability) is important to gain trust. Ensuring accessibility to medical facilities and healthcare information (Accessibility) is critical for patient care. Building awareness about health issues and medical services through educational campaigns is also essential.

Hospitality and tourism: Understanding customer preferences and offering personalized experiences (Acceptability) is a key aspect of marketing in this sector. Providing competitive pricing and attractive packages (Affordability) to entice travelers is essential. Ensuring accessibility through booking platforms and travel agencies (Accessibility) is important. Creating awareness about destinations and hospitality services through marketing and promotions drives tourism.

Financial services: In the financial sector, understanding customer financial needs and offering suitable products (Acceptability) is critical. Providing transparent and competitive pricing for financial products (Affordability) is important. Ensuring accessibility through online banking and various branches or offices (Accessibility) is essential. Building awareness about financial solutions and promoting financial literacy are also significant.

These are just a few examples, but the 4A’s of marketing are versatile and applicable in various other sectors, including education, real estate, automotive, and more. Applying these principles helps businesses better meet customer needs, gain a competitive advantage, and build a strong market presence.

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An MBA in marketing helps in honing your knowledge and skills. The various subjects included in the MBA marketing course give you insights into the various marketing concepts and strategies that help you thrive in the domain successfully. If you consider doing an MBA in marketing, always prefer a university that has good accreditations and wide recognition. Manipal University Jaipur (MUJ) has popular accreditations and recognitions like NAAC A+, AICTE, ICES, IQAS, WES, and all the courses offered by the university are UGC-entitled. 

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Check out: A guide to get a job in the marketing sector


The 4 A marketing model considers the buyer-centric marketing concept, which evolved from experience and analytics within the digital marketing field and adapted to the business-to-business world. It focuses on the end-to-end process of delivering marketing strategies and engaging the target audience.

Marketing’s role is to drive awareness of the company, acquire new customers, and keep them loyal. The subsequent steps in the marketing cycle focus on building a community of brand advocates, engaging them as brand ambassadors, and then measuring and optimizing engagement levels on behalf of the brand.

The 4 A marketing model is a great way to think about the marketing process, but there is much more to it. You can also think of it as the foundation for the marketing strategy.


Information related to companies and external organizations is based on secondary research or the opinion of individual authors and must not be interpreted as the official information shared by the concerned organization.

Additionally, information like fee, eligibility, scholarships, finance options etc. on offerings and programs listed on Online Manipal may change as per the discretion of respective universities so please refer to the respective program page for latest information. Any information provided in blogs is not binding and cannot be taken as final.

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  • Master of Business Administration
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  • online MBA courses in India

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